Posts Tagged ‘H.265’

NAB 2019: Where Does It Go From Here?

This year’s NAB Show marked a milestone for me as it was my 25th consecutive April visit to the halls of the Las Vegas Convention Center. Back in 1995, my first impression was of enormous booths full of expensive hardware (lots of cameras with five-figure price tags), tape-based recording and editing systems, huge audio consoles, and the costly first iterations of non-linear video editing systems.

The World Wide Web was just becoming a thing, and NAB had set up an area in the then-Hilton ballroom so that a bunch of small companies (none of whose names I remember and none of who are around any more) could amaze us with stories of video streaming (basically tiny stamp-sized clips of low-resolution talking heads) and how someday, “all of this will be available to anyone with an Internet connection.” Of course, it would have to be a lot faster than the dial-up speeds available then.

I just remember shaking my head, thinking none of this would ever fly, and moving onto the big, expensive hardware. SDI, VGA, BNC connectors – stuff I could understand. “Reference” video monitors were bulky, heavy chassis with cathode-ray tubes and sold for tens of thousands of dollars.

Video itself was largely standard definition back then – HDTV was still in its infancy, and the so-called “Grand Alliance” of companies like Zenith/LG, AT&T, General Instrument, and others were pushing for an all-digital broadcast television system to replace NTSC. (Grand Alliance banners were prominently featured on the outside facades of the North Hall and Central Hall.)

Sharp’s 8C-30A is the first 8K DSLR to market. It only shoots 30p, but that’s a bus speed and interfacing limitation.

 

NHK’s been broadcasting 8K video content via satellite since last December and will cover the 2020 Olympics extensively in 8K.

And the “broadcast” part of NAB was BIG. Lots of companies showing exciters, transmitters, antennas, monitoring equipment, tubes and solid-state rigs, and hardline and waveguide dominated the North Hall and part of the Central Hall. Industry giants like Panasonic, JVC, Hitachi, Sony, Ikegami, Canon, and Toshiba constructed booths larger than the average house. Life was good, sales were brisk, and there was plenty of profit for everyone.

At the time, I was writing columns and feature articles for Video Systems, and our annual NAB issue was so stuffed with ads that it ran well over 300 pages. Other publications were jockeying for ad sales and editorial coverage, filling NAB press conferences to the rafters. You may remember some of them – Videography, Post, Millimeter, AV Video, Broadcast Engineering, TV Technology, and Television Broadcast, to name a few.

We all know what happened in the intervening years. The “broadcast” part of NAB is a tiny portion of the exhibit floor now. Those streaming video guys with their advanced codecs now rule the roost. High-quality video cameras capable of shooting 4K video sell for one-tenth of those 1995 models and do it all to solid-state memory cards. Non-linear editing is so ubiquitous that you can buy the software for about $100 and run it on your everyday laptop. And trade publications are largely dinosaurs.

We made the transition to digital TV broadcasting in 2009 and are about to move again to a newer, more IP-centric system, ATSC 3.0. CRTs are a distant memory, replaced by large high-resolution flat screen LCD and OLED displays. High dynamic range with its associated wider color gamut is muscling its way into our homes and theaters. High frame rate video, once considered a major obstacle, is becoming reality, even at Ultra HD resolution.

Chris Chinnock of the 8K Association ran a full day of 8K seminars on Wednesday.

 

Socionext is the only chip manufacturer able to deliver HDMI 2.1 TX and RX chipsets at present.

And those once-enormous booths are steadily shrinking each year as profit continues to evaporate from hardware sales. Indeed; the focus at this year’s NAB Show seemed to be shifting (as one company VP put it) away from capital expenditures (CapEx) to operating expenditures (OpEx). Hardware is increasingly becoming generic – the ATSC 3.0 single-frequency network broadcasting demos in the North Hall ran off a pair of compact Dell servers – and software is the new king of the hill. (How much booth space do you really need to demo software?)

The shift away from hardware to software may also be impacting attendance. The official head count for 2017 was 103,443. Two years later, attendance was pegged at 91,460; representing a decline of 11.6%, or 12,000 visitors. That’s quite a dip – not as pronounced as the drop from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession, but still enough to give show organizers some reason for concern.

The general feeling among many of my colleagues and friends was that the show was trying to find an identify. The theme of the show was “Every Story Starts Here,” which is about as generic and vague as you can get. Was that a reference to the fact that that high-quality tools to capture, edit, and produce compelling video are a relative bargain these days, and that we should concentrate more on how we use them and less on how they work?

Astro exhibited many things 8K, including this compact 8K/120 camera with built-in CCU.

 

Leyard Planar brought back their 8K LED fine pitch videowall from a year ago.

I don’t have the answers. What I can tell you is that there were still some interesting products to be found in Las Vegas, and from my perspective, a great deal of them pertained to UHD video capture, editing, and distribution. My focus has always been forward-looking (aside from the nostalgia piece I opened this feature with), so the transition of HDTV to Ultra HDTV and the attendant transitions to a new digital TV broadcast system and advanced video codecs held the greatest interest for me.

Yes, 8K has arrived, Yes, it’s not immediately obvious why we need it. But like it or not, the cameras are here, the displays are coming to store shelves, and at least one broadcaster (NHK) is operating a 24/7 8K video channel. Companies that showed 8K cameras at NAB included Sony, Ikegami, RED, Hitachi, and Sharp. The latter brand made 8K the focus of their entire booth, a bold and impressive statement considering Sharp was nearing bankruptcy not that long ago.

Panasonic’s take on 8K was something called an “area of interest” camera, allowing anyone to dynamically select and switch between any of four 2K video slices of the overall image. This technique was described by NHK a few years back at the annual SMPTE Conference as a way to achieve a multi-camera shoot with just one or two cameras. Astro (who has commercialized many of NHK’s 8K innovations) had several flavors of 8K on display including a stereo VR camera, a fisheye lens fitted to an 8K camera, and a compact 8K/120p camera with CCU built-in that weighed less than 10 pounds.

Panasonic’s 8K Area Of Interest (AOI) camera lets you create a virtual four-camera 2K shoot and switcher – all from one static view.

 

Sony’s UHC-8300 8K portable camcorder will get a workout at the 2020 Olympics.

Astro also addressed an on-going challenge for adoption of 8K video and display, and that was upconverting 1080p/2K content in an acceptable manner. Their demo of an AI-based up-scaling system was quite impressive, particularly given the challenging test patterns and fine text used in the demo. Sharp’s big announcement was the availability of the world’s first DLSR with 8K native resolution. The 8C-30A can shoot 8K/30p video using a Micro Four Thirds sensor and a variety of lenses, but will be pricey at around $4,000.

Notable by their absence in this market: Canon. I was told by a company official that Canon does sell an 8K camera in Japan for broadcast and production, but has no plans to offer it stateside unless there is sufficient demand. Of course, Japan remains the focus for every player in 8K, what with the summer Olympics coming up in 2020 and brands like Hitachi and Sony jockeying to provide cameras and hardware to cover the event.

Given the enormous volume of data that 4K and 8K cameras generate, I was also on the lookout for advanced codecs. HEVC H.265 has been around for a few years and could be suitable for the job. The only question is latency, particularly for contribution. NTT seems to have a handle on the problem, as they showed a prototype encoder/decoder combination for 4K/120 video that has an end-to-end latency of just 37 milliseconds.

If you’re having trouble keeping track of all the players in UHD HDR, this chart may help. Or not.

 

Ikegami also has an 8K production camera ready for the 2020 Olympics.

Another approach is to improve codec efficiency. At the Wednesday 8K Association seminars, a more detailed explanation of the new Versatile Video Codec (VVC, perhaps to become H.266?) was offered. The key to improving efficiency is increasing the maximum encoding block size from 64×64 used in H.265 to 128×128, with a targeted reduction of 50% in bit rate. Presently, the actual improvement is about 34% as software evolves.

Astro and Sharp also demonstrated a practical 8K/60p non-linear editing and color correction platform known as Tamazone. It imports 8K 4:2:2 10-bit YUV from Sharp’s 8C-60A camcorder using four 12G SDI connections through BlackMagic Design’s DeckLink 8K Pro interface, with DaVinci Resolve 15 Studio and Resolve Live software. To view what you’re working on, an nVIDIA Quadro Pro 4000 graphics card drives a pair of DisplayPort 1.2 interfaces on an associated 8K monitor, stitching together two 4K images.

Yes, it’s a bit of a “Scotch Tape and paper clips” solution at the display end…but then, so was 4K when it first got off the ground more than a decade ago. The real challenge now is at the monitor – there really aren’t any true 8K reference monitors out there. Sharp showed a 32-inch prototype using their IGZO TFT backplane technology, but for now, the few 8K monitor products being talked about are largely based on consumer television designs. (LG Display has also shown an 8K 31.5” monitor for several years now.)

Advantech was streaming 8K/60 video across their booth over a fast IP network at 200 Mb/s using HEVC H.265.

 

NTT claims they can encode and decode 4K / UHD video with a 120 Hz frame rate using H.265, but with just 37 milliseconds of latency end-to-end.

It’s possible that the new 31.5” 4K LCD monitors shown by Panasonic, Sony, and others might fit the bill eventually. This HDR monitor uses two panels. The first is a 4096×2160 IPS-Alpha LCD with full array backlight, while the second panel is identical in construction but free of color filters. It is precisely aligned with the first panel and works as a monochromatic light shutter to provide really deep black levels. Of course, it requires a lot more horsepower in the backlight as a consequence.

Another popular discussion on the show floor was the concept of shooting, editing, and archiving at higher resolution and using lower-resolution (4K, Full HD) for distribution. In this way, the goals of improving current HD and 4K video quality can be improved significantly, but the finished product is a bit more friendly to bandwidth-constricted distribution systems like broadcast and streaming. Hitachi has argued for Full HD with HDR as a practical broadcast format (it is) and a 4K program derived from an 8K master would look pretty darn good on Netflix and Amazon Prime.

So many questions and not a lot of answers, just possible solutions. I expect NAB to get smaller over time as the emphasis shifts from hardware to software (ironic, given the LVCC is in the middle of another expansion to almost 4 million square feet). No doubt 8K will be a part of it, as will IP-based distribution of media. No wonder there was an air of “where do we go from here?” during the show…

AV-over-IP: It’s Here. Time To Get On Board!

At InfoComm next week in Las Vegas, I look forward to seeing many familiar faces – both individuals and manufacturers – that have frequented the show since I first attended over 20 years ago. And I also expect to find quite a few newcomers, based on the press releases and product announcements I’ve been receiving daily.

Many of those newcomers will be hawking the latest technology – AV-over-IP. More specifically, transporting video, audio, and metadata that are encoded into some sort of compressed or lightly-compressed format, wrapped with IP headers, and transported over IP networks.

This isn’t exactly a new trend: The broadcast, telecom, and cable/satellite worlds have already begun or completed the migration to IT infrastructures. The increasing use of optical fiber and lower-cost, fast network switches are making it all possible. Think 10 gigabit Ethernet with single-mode fiber interconnections, and you can see where the state-of-the-art is today.

You’ve already experienced this AV-over-IP phenomenon if you watch streaming HD and 4K video. Home Internet connection speeds have accelerated by several orders of magnitude ever since the first “slow as a snail” dial-up connections got us into AOL two decades ago. Now, it’s not unusual to have sustained 10, 15, 25, and even 50 megabit per second (Mb/s) to the home – fast enough to stream Ultra HD content with multichannel sound.

And so it goes with commercial video and audio transport. Broadcast television stations had to migrate to HD-SDI starting nearly 20 years ago when the first HDTV broadcasts commenced. (Wow, has it really been that long?) Now, they’re moving to IP and copper/fiber backbones to achieve greater bandwidth and to take advantage of things like cloud storage and archiving.

So why hasn’t the AV industry gotten with the program? Because we still have a tendency to cling to old, familiar, and often outdated or cumbersome technology, rationalizing that “it’s still good enough, and it works.” (You know who you are…still using VGA and composite video switching and distribution products…)

I’ve observed that there is often considerable and continual aversion in our industry to anything having to do with IT networks and optical fiber. And it just doesn’t make any sense. Maybe it originates from a fear of losing control to IT specialists and administrators. Or, it could just be a reluctance to learn something new.

The result is that we’ve created a monster when it comes to digital signal management. Things were complicated enough when the AV industry was dragged away from analog to digital and hung its hats on the HDMI consumer video interface for switching and distribution. Now, that industry has created behemoth switch matrices to handle the current and next flavors of HDMI (a format that never was suitable for commercial AV applications).

We’ve even figured out a way to digitize the HDMI TMDS signal and extend it using category wire, up to a whopping 300 feet. And somehow, we think that’s impressive? Single-mode fiber can carry an HD video signal over 10 miles. Now, THAT’S impressive – and it’s not exactly new science.

So, now we’re installing ever-larger racks of complex HDMI switching and distribution gear that is expensive and also bandwidth-capped – not nearly fast enough for the next generation of UHD+ displays with full RGB (4:4:4) color, high dynamic range, and high frame rates. How does that make any sense?

What’s worse, the marketing folks have gotten out in front, muddying the waters with all kinds of nonsensical claims about “4K compatibility,” “4K readiness,” and even “4K certified.” What does that even mean? Just because your switch or DA product can support a very basic level of Ultra HD video with slow frame rates and reduced color resolution, it’s considered “ready” or “certified?” Give me a break.

Digitizing HDMI and extending it 300 feet isn’t future-proof. Neither is limiting Ultra HD bandwidth to 30 Hz 8-bit RGB color, or 60 Hz 8-bit 4:2:0 color. Not even close. Not when you can already buy a 27-inch 5K (yes, 5K!) monitor with 5120×2880 resolution and the ability to show 60 Hz 10-bit color. And when 8K monitors are coming to market.

So why we keep playing tricks with specifications, and working with Band-Aid solutions? We shouldn’t. We don’t need to. And the answer is already at hand.

It’s time to move away from the concept of big, bulky, expensive, and basically obsolete switching and distribution hardware that’s based on a proprietary consumer display interface standard. It’s time to move to a software-based switching and distribution concept that uses an IT structure, standard codecs like JPEG2000, M-JPEG, H.264, and H.265, and everyday off-the-shelf switches to move signals around.

Now, we can design a fast, reliable AV network that allows us to manage available bandwidth and add connections as needed. Our video can be lightly compressed with low latency, or more highly compressed for efficiency. The only display interfaces we’ll need will be at the end points where the display is connected.

Even better, our network also provides access to monitoring and controlling every piece of equipment we’ve connected. We can design and configure device controls and interfaces using cloud-based driver databases. We can access content from remote servers (the cloud, again) and send it anywhere we want. And we can log in from anywhere in the world to keep tabs on how it’s all functioning.

And if we’re smart and not afraid to learn something new, we’ll wire all of it up with optical fiber, instead of bulky cables or transmitters and receivers to convert the signals to a packet format and back. (Guess what? AV-over-IP is already digital! You can toss out those distance-limited HDMI extenders, folks!)

For those who apparently haven’t gotten the memo, 40 Gb/s network switches have been available for a few years, with 100 Gb/s models now coming to market. So much for speed limit issues…

To the naysayers who claim AV-over-IP won’t work as well as display interface switching: That’s a bunch of hooey. How are Comcast, Time Warner, NBC, Disney, Universal, Netflix, Amazon, CBS, and other content originators and distributors moving their content around? You guessed it.

AV-over-IP is what you should be looking for as you walk the aisles of the Las Vegas Convention Center, not new, bigger, and bulkier HDMI/DVI matrices. AV-over-IP is the future of our industry, whether we embrace it or are dragged into it, kicking and screaming.

Are you on board, or what?

The Wires Remain The Same. Only the Format Has Been Changed (to Confuse the Innocent)

For the longest time, the pro AV industry was characterized by proprietary cabling formats: One piece of coax with BNCs (or yellow RCA plugs) for composite video. A 15-pin DB9 connector for VGA. DIN connectors for S-video. And RJ-45 plugs for twisted-pair analog signal extenders.

With the advent of digital signal interfacing, we’ve got a slew of new connectors that look nothing like their predecessors: The 19-pin HDMI plug. The 20-pin DisplayPort plug. Micro USB. Type-C USB. DVI. And RJ-45 plugs for twisted-pair digital signal extenders.

Wait – what? We’re still using RJ-45 plugs, and category wire? Apparently, and we’ve now migrated to the more robust category 6 wire (rated for 1GigE connections); more often than not equipped with shielding to minimize crosstalk and ground wires for longer signal transmission distances.

The thing is; we’re now facing a new set of challenges in the way we multiplex and transport video, audio, RS232, IR, USB, metadata, and even power. One camp advocates for using a proprietary system (HDBaseT) that currently has a practical limit of about 330 feet and is still limited to supporting the older HDMI 1.4 standard. But it transports uncompressed signals and is very popular in the InfoComm world.

The other camp is advocating that we compress and convert all video/audio/data to packets and transmit them with IP headers through conventional networks. This method increases transmission distance considerably and can run over copper or optical fiber (or even coax, for that matter), through conventional, open-system network switches. This approach is favored by telecom companies, along with broadcast networks, IPTV services, and other multichannel video system operators.

Now, another camp says that they’ve developed a “better mousetrap” for doing AV-over-IP, using a low-latency protocol known as BlueRiver NT that uses light compression on video and audio.

Logos Combined July 2015 CROP 1024So which is the way to go? That’s not an easy question to answer, but the most common approach to transmitting digital video and audio over long distances is solution #2, using MPEG compression and standard IP protocols to transport video and audio through everyday networks and switches.

What’s more; it’s likely to stay that way. While the HDBaseT format works very well, it is based on a proprietary pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) scheme that requires chipsets manufactured by Valens Semiconductor. And there is that distance limitation, although support for optical fiber is now in the standard. But you can’t run HDBaseT signals through conventional network switches.

The BlueRiver NT approach (designed by AptoVision) claims to improve on conventional AV-over-IP transmission while retaining low latency with Adaptive Clock Re-synchronization. This technique interleaves audio, video, 1GB Ethernet and other signals with an embedded clocking mechanism.

According to AptoVision, this approach recovers the clocks for both audio and video at the decoder end with only a few lines of latency while remaining fully synched to the source clock across the entire network; even through switches. The light compression cranks down data rates by 50% with a “lossless” two-step codec.

While you can run BlueRiver NT-coded video and audio through conventional IP networks and switches, you must use their proprietary codec in transmitters and receivers. So it’s not a true “open” system, although it is more flexible than HDBaseT for installation in a network environment.

So, back to conventional AV-over-IP, which (come to think of it) isn’t really that “conventional” nowadays. Thanks to the new HEVC H.265 codec and a series of real-time protocols, it’s now possible to stream 1080p content with conventional IP headers through any network and switch and decode it with any H.265-compatible device, like a set-top box or media player, or even a new Ultra HDTV.

And your 1080p content can travel through networks at speeds as slow as 1 to 2 megabits per second, yet still yield good image quality when decoded. Compare that to the current 6 – 10 Mb/s requirement for 1080p/60 using H.264 AVC coding, and you’re seeing quite an improvement.

H.265 decoder chips are now widely available from Broadcom, which means that a whole host of displays and media players can be used to decode AV-over-IP signals – you aren’t stuck with a proprietary system. What’s more, AV-over-IP systems aren’t restricted by bandwidth in their transmitters and receivers. If the network can handle 1 Gb/s of data, so be it. And if you are fortunate enough to tie into a 10GigE network with optical fiber, the sky’s the limit!

Now, none of what I just wrote says these systems can’t co-exist. It may make sense to use HDBaseT extenders (or BlueRiver NT versions) to connect from a decoder to distant displays. Or, the input of an encoder could be fed by an HDBaseT / BlueRiver receiver.

The advantage of a 100% AV-over-IP system is that it nicely sidesteps the current speed limit problems we’re experiencing with HDMI, and to a lesser extent, DisplayPort. We’ve reduced the video and audio signals to a baseband format and compressed them into packets, which can travel through ANY manufacturer’s IP switching and routing gear.

Best of all, the addressing is done in software with IP addresses, which helps manage the size of the switch and ensures it is always easily scalable. If you didn’t specify enough inputs and outputs on a matrix switch for HDMI, you’ve got a problem! But if you need to connect more displays through an AV-over-IP system, you just need more IP addresses.

In the near future, you can count on hearing plenty of debates about which of these formats is “the way to go” for digital signal distribution. HDBaseT is widely entrenched in the commercial AV world (and to some extent, in home theater). But it’s not popular with IT-savvy users, where conventional MPEG/AES and IP headers rule the day.

And it remains to be seen how much traction BlueRiver NT can gain in the pro AV space. Some manufacturers are already supporting this format as a better way to do AV-over-IP than H.265. Latency issues with any video codec are largely a result of both compression and forward error correction, and we’re still in the early stages of H.265 adoption. So it’s a little too early to pick winners and losers here.

Frankly; if I was designing a high-performance video network, I’d use 100% optical fiber cabling and H.265/IP to get the job done, running everything through 1GigE or (if the budget permitted) 10GigE switches and using fiber-to-“whatever” receivers/converters at all terminations.

That would essentially guarantee future-proofing of the installation, as all I’d need to do to connect an upgraded interface would be to swap out a plug-in card or install a low-cost black box as needed.

But that’s just me…

NAB In The Rear View Mirror

It’s been over a week since I got back from Las Vegas and edited all of my photos and videos. But once again, NAB scored big numbers with attendance and there were enough goodies to be found in all three exhibit halls, if you were willing to put in the time to pound the pavement. Over 100,000 folks made their way to the Las Vegas Convention Center to see endless demos of streaming, drones, 4K cameras and post-production, and H.265 encoders.

We were also treated to a rare haboob, or dust storm, which blew through town late Tuesday afternoon and blotted out the sun, leaving a fine dusting of sand particles on everything (and in everyone’s hair, ears, and eyes.)  While most of the conferences and presentations tend to be somewhat predictable, the third day of the show featured the notorious John McAfee (yes, THAT John McAfee) as the keynote speaker at the NAB Technology Luncheon. Escorted by a security detail, McAfee walked up on stage and proceeded to warn everyone about the security risks inherent in loading apps onto phones and tablets. (Come to think of it, why does a flashlight app for my phone need permission to access my contact list and my camera?)

Some readers may remember the Streaming Video pavilion in the Central Hall at this show back in 1999. There, dozens of small start-up companies had booths showing how they could push 320×240-resolution video (“dancing postage stamps”) over 10 megabit and 100 megabit Ethernet connections, and not always reliably. (And not surprisingly, most of those companies were gone a year later.)

Today, companies like Harmonic, Elemental, Ericsson, Ateme, and the Fraunhofer Institute routinely demonstrate 4K (3840×2160) video through 1GigE networks at a data rate of 15 Mb/s, using 65-inch and 84-inch 4K video screens to demonstrate the picture quality. 4K file storage and editing “solutions” are everywhere, as are the first crop of reference-quality 4K displays using LCD and OLED technology.

In some ways, the NAB show resembles InfoComm. Many of the exhibitors at NAB have also set up shop at InfoComm, waiting for the pro AV channel to embrace digital video over IP networks. (It’ll happen, guys. Just be patient.) In the NAB world, video transport over IP using optical fiber backbones is quite the common occurrence, although it’s still a novelty to our world. (Haven’t you heard? Fiber is good for you!)

I spent three and a half days wandering around the aisles in a daze, but managed to find some gems among the crowds. Here were some highlights:

Blackmagic Design drew a crowd to see its Micro Cinema Camera, and it is indeed tiny. The sensor size is Super 16 (mm) and is capable of capturing 13 stops of light. RAW and Apple ProRes recording formats are native, and Blackmagic has also included an expansion port “…featuring PWM and S.Bus inputs for airplane remote control.” (Can you say “drone?”) And all of this for just $995…

RED’s booth showed the prototype of a new 8K (7680×4320) camera body that will capture video at 6K resolution from 1 to 100 frames per second. In 4K (3840×2160) mode, the Dragon can record footage as fast as 150 frames per second. (Both of these are in RAW mode.) Data transfer (writing speeds) was listed at 300 Mb/s, and the camera has built-in wireless connectivity.

Akamai had a cool demo of UHDTV over 4G LTE networks (you know, the network your smartphone uses!).

Akamai had a cool demo of UHDTV over 4G LTE networks (you know, the network your smartphone uses!).

Vitec showed what they claimed to be the first portable hardware-based H.265 encoder for field production.

Vitec showed what they claimed to be the first portable hardware-based H.265 encoder for field production.

Arri showed a 65mm digital camera, resurrecting a format that goes back to the 1950s. The actual resolution of the camera sensor is 5120×2880, or “5K” as Arri calls it. This sensor size is analogous to the old 6 cm x 6 cm box cameras made by Rollei and Yashica, and there is quite a bit of data flowing from this camera when it records! (Can you say “terabytes” of storage?”)

Drones dominated the show, with powerhouse DJI setting up in the central hall and an entire section of the rear south hall devoted to a drone “fly-off” competition. Nearby, a pavilion featured nothing but drones, cameras, accessories, and even wireless camera links such as Amimon’s Connex 5 GHz system. (You may recognize this as a variant of the company’s WHDI wireless HDMI product.)

Even Ford goes to NAB!

Even Ford goes to NAB!

Flanders Scientific showed this impressive prototype HDR reference monitor.

Flanders Scientific showed this impressive prototype HDR reference monitor.

Sony had side-by-side comparisons of standard dynamic range (SDR) and high dynamic range (HDR) footage using their new BVM-X300 30-inch HDR OLED display. This is the 3rd generation of OLED reference monitor products to come out of the Sony labs, and it’s a doozy with 4096×2160 resolution (3G-SDI Quad-link up to 4096 x 2160/48p/50p/60p) and coverage of the DCI P3 minimum color space. The monitor can also reproduce about 80% of the new BT.2020 color gamut. Peak brightness (scene to scene) is about 800 nits, and color reproduction is very accurate with respect to flesh tones and pastels.

Canon also took the wraps off a new reference monitor. The DP-V2410 4K reference display has 4096×2160 pixels of resolution (the DCI 4K standard) and uses an IPS LCD panel that is capable to showing high dynamic range (HDR), usually defined as at least 15 stops of light. It supports the ITU BT.2020 color space, can upscale 2K content to 4K, and will run off 24 volts DC for field use.

Panasonic's 3-chip DLP projector gets 10,000 lumens out of a laser light engine.

Panasonic’s 3-chip DLP projector gets 12,000 lumens out of a laser light engine.

Korea's ETRI lab had this clever demo of mobile and fixed 3D Ultra HD.

Korea’s ETRI lab had this clever demo of mobile and fixed 3D Ultra HD.

Panasonic unveiled their first laser-powered 3-chip DLP projector, and it’s a doozy. Using a short-throw lens, the Panasonic guys lit up a 10-foot diagonal screen with 12,000 lumens at WUXGA (1920×1200) resolution from the PT-RZ12KU. It uses a blue laser to excite a yellow-green color wheel and create white light, which is then refracted into red, green, and blue light for imaging. The projector weighs just 95 pounds, and the demo used an ultra-short-throw lens positioned about 12” – 16” in front of the screen.

Fine-pitch indoor and outdoor LED displays are a growing market. Both Leyard and Panasonic showed large LED displays with 1.6mm dot pitch, which isn’t much larger than what you would have found on a 768p-resolution plasma display from 15 years ago. The color quality and contrast on these displays was quite impressive and you have to stand pretty close to notice the pixel structure, unlike the more commonly-used 6mm and 10mm pitch for outdoor LED displays. Brightness on these displays is in the thousands of nits (talk about high-dynamic range!).

Chromavisiuon's fine-pitch 4K videowall was one of several fine-pitch LED displays at the show - perfect for indoor use.

Chromavisiuon’s fine-pitch 4K videowall was one of several fine-pitch LED displays at the show – perfect for indoor use.

 

65mm production is back, thanks to Arri.

65mm production is back, thanks to Arri.

Speaking of HDR, Dolby had a demonstration in its booth of new UHDTVs from Vizio that incorporate Dolby’s version of high dynamic range. Vizio showed a prototype product a year ago at CES and it now appears close to delivery. The target brightness for peak white will be well over 1000 nits, but the challenge for any LCD panel is being able to show extremely low levels of gray – near black.

Vitec had what may be the world’s first portable HEVC H.265 encoder, the MGW Ace. Unlike most of the H.265 demos at the show, this product does everything in hardware with a dedicated H.265 compression chip (most likely from Broadcom). And it is small, at about ¾ of a rack wide. Inputs include 3G/SDI, composite video (yep, that’s still around), HDMI, and DVI, with support for embedded and serial digital audio. Two Ethernet ports complete the I/O complement.

Over in the NTT booth, a demonstration was being made of “the first H.265 HEVC encoder ever to perform 4K 4:2:2 encoding in real time.” I’m not sure if that was true, but it was a cool demo: NTT (a/k/a Nippon Telephone & Telegraph) researchers developed the NARA processor to reduce power consumption and save space over existing software/hardware based encoders. And it comes with extension interfaces to encode video with even higher resolution.

NTT had this compact virtual reality theater, showing a ping-pong game to tiny dolls.

NTT had this compact virtual reality theater, showing a ping-pong game to tiny dolls.

If you ever wondered what live 8K/210p footage looked like, NHK showed it.

If you ever wondered what live 8K/210p footage looked like, NHK had the answer.

NHK was back again with their extension demo area of 8K acquisition, image processing, and broadcasting. (Yes, NHK IS broadcasting 8K in Tokyo, and has been doing so for a few years.) Among the cooler things in their booth was a 13-inch 8K OLED display – which almost seems like an oxymoron – and an impressive demonstration of 8K/60 and 8K/120 shooting and playback. On the 120Hz side of the screen, there was no blur whatsoever of footage taken during a soccer match.

This is just scratching the surface, and I’ll have more information during my annual “Future Trends” presentation at InfoComm in June. For now, I’ll let one of my colleagues sum up the show as being about “wireless 4K drones over IP.” (Okay, that’s a bit of a simplification…)

NAB 2014 In The Rear View Mirror

The 2014 NAB Show has come and gone, and although attendance was strong, this year’s edition didn’t have quite the buzz that I expected. Given all that is happening with UHDTV currently, that’s surprising: We are seeing a transformation of television into something very different from traditional models, including demonstrations of next-generation broadcast systems (ATSC 3.0), more powerful encoders (HEVC), and a migration to IP-based video production facilities (the cloud, AVB).

I spent three and a half days at the show, taking it all in while setting aside some time to present a paper at the Broadcast Engineering Conference on the current state of wireless AV connectivity and moderating a Wednesday Super Session on the future of video technology. If I really had to pick one word to characterize this year’s show, it would be “flux.”

Some trends were clear. The Japanese brands (aside from Canon) continue to down-size their booths as their business models shift away from traditional cameras, switchers, recording devices, and monitors. There were numerous companies showing cloud-based storage and media delivery over IT networks, and more than a few booths featured demos of HEVC H.265 encoding and decoding; most of it done with software.

Only a handful of booths emphasized monitors, and some of those had super-sized screens for digital signage out for inspection. In the north and central halls, you could find the traditional purveyors of broadcast transmitters, antennas, and coaxial cable, along with microphones and conventional audio products. But the emphasis seemed to be on “connected” anything – video, audio, cloud storage and delivery, and even wireless cameras for field acquisition and live events.

Given the sheer number of booths, it was difficult to compile a “pick hits” list, but I’ll give it a shot. To me, these companies/products/demos made the trip to Las Vegas worthwhile (and having traveled there over 70 times in the past 20 years, that’s saying a lot!).

Visionary Solutions may not be on your radar, but these clever folks are building some impressive hardware and software codecs at affordable prices. This year, they rolled out their PackeTV system, an end-to-end IP-based video delivery product with scheduling, recording, security, and delivery of real-time and recorded H.264 video, all rolled into one. The graphical user interface (GUI) for controlling the system was well-designed and easy to figure out.

Altera showed how easy it is to stream 12 G HD-SDI (4K) over a single piece of plain coaxial cable.

Altera showed how easy it is to stream 12 G HD-SDI (4K) over a single piece of plain coaxial cable.

 

LG and Gates Air demonstrated their vision for ATSC 3.0, using OFDM and HEVC in a standard TV channel.

LG and Gates Air demonstrated their vision for ATSC 3.0, using OFDM and HEVC in a standard TV channel.

LG and Gates Air had an impressive demo of an ATSC 3.0 concept broadcast. They combined Quad HD, 2K, and SD video programs into one 6 MHz channel, using HEVC encoding and decoding. The signals were encoded at 14, 1.6, and .98 Mb/s respectively, and the signal-to-noise threshold for the SD cast was just 1.5 dB. Multipath sets emulating mobile reception were also demonstrated with the 2K and SD streams holding up very well even at 50 mph.

Sony demonstrated a beautiful 30-inch OLED reference monitor that will soon take its place in the existing Trimaster series. This is a home-grown product and employs the same top-emission system with optical bandpass filters found on the 17-inch and 25-inch products. No price has been announced yet, and Sony has a real challenge in trying to figure out what that price should be as its customers aren’t willing to shell out 1990s bucks anymore for reference displays.

Altera had a clever demo of 12 Gb/s HD-SDI streaming over a piece of “conventional” coaxial cable. 3G HD-SDI has a nominal data cap of 3 Gb/s, so this demo used linked HD-SDI streams to hit the magic number (coincidentally, the data rate for a Quad HD video stream with a 60 Hz refresh rate and 4:2:2 coding). The coax link was 60 feet long and the transmission was flawless, aside from some hiccups on the PC playout server.

Ericsson showed there is more than one way to stream live 4K content. They set up a system that transported a live Quad HD video stream (3840x2160p/60) from a server in England, through satellite and fiber links, to the Ericsson and Intelsat booths at the show. But they used conventional H.264 encoding, breaking the 4K signal into 2K quadrants and using their Simulsync process to stich them together at the receiving end in a seamless presentation on an 84-inch monitor.

Ericsson stiched together four 2K image quadrants to stream this 4K image live from England.

Ericsson stiched together four 2K image quadrants to stream this 4K image live from England.

 

NHK's 4-pound Super Hi-Vision camera records video with 7680x4320 pixels @ 60 Hz and is a marvel.

NHK’s 4-pound Super Hi-Vision camera records video with 7680×4320 pixels @ 60 Hz and is a marvel.

NHK once again had their 8K Super Hi-Vision booth set up, but this time they were streaming live 8K (7680×4320) content from a new, compact 4-pound camera head. The signals were broadcast across the booth in two separate streams on a standard UHF channel, using 4096 QAM at 91 MB/s. Half of the data traveled as a horizontally-polarized signal and the other half as a vertically-polarized signal, both on UHF channel 36. (At that frequency, you can achieve about 20 dB separation between polarization angles.)

Haivision was demonstrating their Secure Reliable Transport (SRT) system over at the Renaissance Hotel. SRT is a hardware/software overlay for existing Haivision encoder/decoder products that is intended to better manage end-to-end streaming over public Internet connections. It offers adaptive streaming rates and two levels of encryption (AES 128-bit and 256-bit). SRT is positioned as an alternative to more expensive satellite backhaul links and dedicated MPLS point-to-point connections.

Korea’s Electronics and Telecommunications Institute (ETRI) had a small but intriguing demo of facial recognition linked to ad servers. The recognition system is built into a standard TV and has a range of about 10 feet, can discriminate between older and younger viewers, and will recognize a face turned 45 degrees to the right or left of center. An appropriate advertisement for the viewer is then displayed during a commercial break.

Fraunhofer HHI always has clever technology demos at NAB, and this year they spotlighted real-time software-based HEVC H.265 encoding and decoding at bit rates up to 40 Mb/s. They also showcased a real-time, hardware-based H.265 decoder using an Altera Stratix V FPGA. This decoder can handle bit rates to 80 MB/s and uses standard interfaces for set-top box designs. Fraunhofer also had an intriguing demo of surround sound playback for tablets in a nearby isolation booth.

BlackMagic's Ursa 4K camera costs only $6,000 (EF lens version)!

BlackMagic’s Ursa 4K camera costs only $6,000 (EF lens version)!

Sony's 30-inch Trimaster OLED looked great, but will its price tag break the bank?

Sony’s 30-inch Trimaster OLED looked great, but will its price tag break the bank?

No plasma? No problem for Panasonic, which showed new 84-inch and 98-inch 4K LCD monitors at the show.

No plasma? No problem for Panasonic, which showed new 84-inch and 98-inch 4K LCD monitors at the show.

BlackMagic Design continues to introduce powerful camera systems at bargain basement prices. Their new Ursa 4K field/studio camera has a huge 10-inch LCD monitor, touchscreen control, RAW and ProRes recorders, and upgradable Super 35mm shutter. The EF lens-compatible version lists at $5,995 while the PL-compatible version is $6,495. Their Studio Camera 4K, also equipped with the 10-inch LCD monitor and 12 GB HD-SDI connections, had an even more amazing price – $2,995.

Intel showed a clever use for Thunderbolt technology: Using a display interface for file exchanges. Thunderbolt runs on the DisplayPort physical layer and has a maximum speed of 20 Gb/s. By using a simple mini or regular DisplayPort cable; two MacBooks, two Windows laptops, or a MacBook/Win laptop can link together for file transfers, working just like a 10GigE network connection.

Panasonic showed it still has game after shutting down plasma manufacturing. Two new large digital 4K LCD displays were up and running in their booth – an 84-inch model (TH-84LQ7OU) and a 98-inch model (TH-98LQ7OU). We’ve seen the 84-inch LG Display LC glass cut before offered by other manufacturers, but the 98-inch hasn’t been in wide circulation. These will replace the 85-inch and 103-inch plasma monitors previously offered.

Finally, Christie had regular screenings to show off its new laser cinema projector system. This projector uses two sets of color primaries and matching eyewear, using wave division multiplexing to achieve a high degree of left eye/ right eye separation. According to a Christie rep, the system can achieve a brightness level of 72,000 lumens, and what was interesting to me was virtually no difference in image brightness through the glasses or without them.