Posts Tagged ‘8k’

NAB 2019: Where Does It Go From Here?

This year’s NAB Show marked a milestone for me as it was my 25th consecutive April visit to the halls of the Las Vegas Convention Center. Back in 1995, my first impression was of enormous booths full of expensive hardware (lots of cameras with five-figure price tags), tape-based recording and editing systems, huge audio consoles, and the costly first iterations of non-linear video editing systems.

The World Wide Web was just becoming a thing, and NAB had set up an area in the then-Hilton ballroom so that a bunch of small companies (none of whose names I remember and none of who are around any more) could amaze us with stories of video streaming (basically tiny stamp-sized clips of low-resolution talking heads) and how someday, “all of this will be available to anyone with an Internet connection.” Of course, it would have to be a lot faster than the dial-up speeds available then.

I just remember shaking my head, thinking none of this would ever fly, and moving onto the big, expensive hardware. SDI, VGA, BNC connectors – stuff I could understand. “Reference” video monitors were bulky, heavy chassis with cathode-ray tubes and sold for tens of thousands of dollars.

Video itself was largely standard definition back then – HDTV was still in its infancy, and the so-called “Grand Alliance” of companies like Zenith/LG, AT&T, General Instrument, and others were pushing for an all-digital broadcast television system to replace NTSC. (Grand Alliance banners were prominently featured on the outside facades of the North Hall and Central Hall.)

Sharp’s 8C-30A is the first 8K DSLR to market. It only shoots 30p, but that’s a bus speed and interfacing limitation.

 

NHK’s been broadcasting 8K video content via satellite since last December and will cover the 2020 Olympics extensively in 8K.

And the “broadcast” part of NAB was BIG. Lots of companies showing exciters, transmitters, antennas, monitoring equipment, tubes and solid-state rigs, and hardline and waveguide dominated the North Hall and part of the Central Hall. Industry giants like Panasonic, JVC, Hitachi, Sony, Ikegami, Canon, and Toshiba constructed booths larger than the average house. Life was good, sales were brisk, and there was plenty of profit for everyone.

At the time, I was writing columns and feature articles for Video Systems, and our annual NAB issue was so stuffed with ads that it ran well over 300 pages. Other publications were jockeying for ad sales and editorial coverage, filling NAB press conferences to the rafters. You may remember some of them – Videography, Post, Millimeter, AV Video, Broadcast Engineering, TV Technology, and Television Broadcast, to name a few.

We all know what happened in the intervening years. The “broadcast” part of NAB is a tiny portion of the exhibit floor now. Those streaming video guys with their advanced codecs now rule the roost. High-quality video cameras capable of shooting 4K video sell for one-tenth of those 1995 models and do it all to solid-state memory cards. Non-linear editing is so ubiquitous that you can buy the software for about $100 and run it on your everyday laptop. And trade publications are largely dinosaurs.

We made the transition to digital TV broadcasting in 2009 and are about to move again to a newer, more IP-centric system, ATSC 3.0. CRTs are a distant memory, replaced by large high-resolution flat screen LCD and OLED displays. High dynamic range with its associated wider color gamut is muscling its way into our homes and theaters. High frame rate video, once considered a major obstacle, is becoming reality, even at Ultra HD resolution.

Chris Chinnock of the 8K Association ran a full day of 8K seminars on Wednesday.

 

Socionext is the only chip manufacturer able to deliver HDMI 2.1 TX and RX chipsets at present.

And those once-enormous booths are steadily shrinking each year as profit continues to evaporate from hardware sales. Indeed; the focus at this year’s NAB Show seemed to be shifting (as one company VP put it) away from capital expenditures (CapEx) to operating expenditures (OpEx). Hardware is increasingly becoming generic – the ATSC 3.0 single-frequency network broadcasting demos in the North Hall ran off a pair of compact Dell servers – and software is the new king of the hill. (How much booth space do you really need to demo software?)

The shift away from hardware to software may also be impacting attendance. The official head count for 2017 was 103,443. Two years later, attendance was pegged at 91,460; representing a decline of 11.6%, or 12,000 visitors. That’s quite a dip – not as pronounced as the drop from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession, but still enough to give show organizers some reason for concern.

The general feeling among many of my colleagues and friends was that the show was trying to find an identify. The theme of the show was “Every Story Starts Here,” which is about as generic and vague as you can get. Was that a reference to the fact that that high-quality tools to capture, edit, and produce compelling video are a relative bargain these days, and that we should concentrate more on how we use them and less on how they work?

Astro exhibited many things 8K, including this compact 8K/120 camera with built-in CCU.

 

Leyard Planar brought back their 8K LED fine pitch videowall from a year ago.

I don’t have the answers. What I can tell you is that there were still some interesting products to be found in Las Vegas, and from my perspective, a great deal of them pertained to UHD video capture, editing, and distribution. My focus has always been forward-looking (aside from the nostalgia piece I opened this feature with), so the transition of HDTV to Ultra HDTV and the attendant transitions to a new digital TV broadcast system and advanced video codecs held the greatest interest for me.

Yes, 8K has arrived, Yes, it’s not immediately obvious why we need it. But like it or not, the cameras are here, the displays are coming to store shelves, and at least one broadcaster (NHK) is operating a 24/7 8K video channel. Companies that showed 8K cameras at NAB included Sony, Ikegami, RED, Hitachi, and Sharp. The latter brand made 8K the focus of their entire booth, a bold and impressive statement considering Sharp was nearing bankruptcy not that long ago.

Panasonic’s take on 8K was something called an “area of interest” camera, allowing anyone to dynamically select and switch between any of four 2K video slices of the overall image. This technique was described by NHK a few years back at the annual SMPTE Conference as a way to achieve a multi-camera shoot with just one or two cameras. Astro (who has commercialized many of NHK’s 8K innovations) had several flavors of 8K on display including a stereo VR camera, a fisheye lens fitted to an 8K camera, and a compact 8K/120p camera with CCU built-in that weighed less than 10 pounds.

Panasonic’s 8K Area Of Interest (AOI) camera lets you create a virtual four-camera 2K shoot and switcher – all from one static view.

 

Sony’s UHC-8300 8K portable camcorder will get a workout at the 2020 Olympics.

Astro also addressed an on-going challenge for adoption of 8K video and display, and that was upconverting 1080p/2K content in an acceptable manner. Their demo of an AI-based up-scaling system was quite impressive, particularly given the challenging test patterns and fine text used in the demo. Sharp’s big announcement was the availability of the world’s first DLSR with 8K native resolution. The 8C-30A can shoot 8K/30p video using a Micro Four Thirds sensor and a variety of lenses, but will be pricey at around $4,000.

Notable by their absence in this market: Canon. I was told by a company official that Canon does sell an 8K camera in Japan for broadcast and production, but has no plans to offer it stateside unless there is sufficient demand. Of course, Japan remains the focus for every player in 8K, what with the summer Olympics coming up in 2020 and brands like Hitachi and Sony jockeying to provide cameras and hardware to cover the event.

Given the enormous volume of data that 4K and 8K cameras generate, I was also on the lookout for advanced codecs. HEVC H.265 has been around for a few years and could be suitable for the job. The only question is latency, particularly for contribution. NTT seems to have a handle on the problem, as they showed a prototype encoder/decoder combination for 4K/120 video that has an end-to-end latency of just 37 milliseconds.

If you’re having trouble keeping track of all the players in UHD HDR, this chart may help. Or not.

 

Ikegami also has an 8K production camera ready for the 2020 Olympics.

Another approach is to improve codec efficiency. At the Wednesday 8K Association seminars, a more detailed explanation of the new Versatile Video Codec (VVC, perhaps to become H.266?) was offered. The key to improving efficiency is increasing the maximum encoding block size from 64×64 used in H.265 to 128×128, with a targeted reduction of 50% in bit rate. Presently, the actual improvement is about 34% as software evolves.

Astro and Sharp also demonstrated a practical 8K/60p non-linear editing and color correction platform known as Tamazone. It imports 8K 4:2:2 10-bit YUV from Sharp’s 8C-60A camcorder using four 12G SDI connections through BlackMagic Design’s DeckLink 8K Pro interface, with DaVinci Resolve 15 Studio and Resolve Live software. To view what you’re working on, an nVIDIA Quadro Pro 4000 graphics card drives a pair of DisplayPort 1.2 interfaces on an associated 8K monitor, stitching together two 4K images.

Yes, it’s a bit of a “Scotch Tape and paper clips” solution at the display end…but then, so was 4K when it first got off the ground more than a decade ago. The real challenge now is at the monitor – there really aren’t any true 8K reference monitors out there. Sharp showed a 32-inch prototype using their IGZO TFT backplane technology, but for now, the few 8K monitor products being talked about are largely based on consumer television designs. (LG Display has also shown an 8K 31.5” monitor for several years now.)

Advantech was streaming 8K/60 video across their booth over a fast IP network at 200 Mb/s using HEVC H.265.

 

NTT claims they can encode and decode 4K / UHD video with a 120 Hz frame rate using H.265, but with just 37 milliseconds of latency end-to-end.

It’s possible that the new 31.5” 4K LCD monitors shown by Panasonic, Sony, and others might fit the bill eventually. This HDR monitor uses two panels. The first is a 4096×2160 IPS-Alpha LCD with full array backlight, while the second panel is identical in construction but free of color filters. It is precisely aligned with the first panel and works as a monochromatic light shutter to provide really deep black levels. Of course, it requires a lot more horsepower in the backlight as a consequence.

Another popular discussion on the show floor was the concept of shooting, editing, and archiving at higher resolution and using lower-resolution (4K, Full HD) for distribution. In this way, the goals of improving current HD and 4K video quality can be improved significantly, but the finished product is a bit more friendly to bandwidth-constricted distribution systems like broadcast and streaming. Hitachi has argued for Full HD with HDR as a practical broadcast format (it is) and a 4K program derived from an 8K master would look pretty darn good on Netflix and Amazon Prime.

So many questions and not a lot of answers, just possible solutions. I expect NAB to get smaller over time as the emphasis shifts from hardware to software (ironic, given the LVCC is in the middle of another expansion to almost 4 million square feet). No doubt 8K will be a part of it, as will IP-based distribution of media. No wonder there was an air of “where do we go from here?” during the show…

HPA Tech Retreat 2019: 8K Is Here, Ready Or Not…

As I write this, the second day of the annual HPA Tech Retreat is underway. So far, we’ve learned about deep fakes, film restoration at 12 million frames per second, how to make solid cinema screens work as sound transducers, and how lucrative the market is for media developed for subway systems. Artificial intelligence is a big topic here, used for everything from analyzing frames of film to perform color and gamma correction to flying drones and capturing “point cloud” imaging for virtual backgrounds.

Indeed, artificial intelligence is becoming a valuable tool for searching video footage and finding clips, a much faster process than any conventional search using your eyeballs. TV manufacturers are relying more on basic forms of AI to analyze incoming video streams and perform a variety of transformations to scale and size it to Ultra HD (and eventually 8K) video screens.

In addition to my annual review of the Consumer Electronics Show, I presented a talk on “8K: How’d We Get Here So Quickly?” I casually tossed out this concept last fall when suggesting a session topic, and it was accepted. My research came up with a lot more points than could be fit into 20 minutes, but here are the takeaways:

(1) The migration from 4K to 8K is largely being driven by supply chain decisions in Asia. More specifically, the collapse of profitability in 4K panel and TV manufacturing is leading large Chinese fabs (TCL, Hon Hai, BOW) to build Generation 10.5 and 11 LCD fabs with the intent of cranking out 65-inch and larger 8K TV panels, anticipating over 5 million TV shipments worldwide by 2022.

(2) There are more than a few 8K professional cameras, but all are using 4K lenses. Lenses to fit full-frame 8K sensors are way off in the future and will be challenging and expensive to manufacture, particularly zoom lens designs.

(3) Current display interfaces aren’t nearly fast enough for even basic 8K formats. Samsung’s 85-inch 8K offering is currently equipped with one HDMI 2.0 input (maximum 18 Gb/s), which is fast enough to support 8K (4320p) video @ 30Hz with 8-bit 4:2:0 color. That’s it. HDMI 2.1 won’t make an appearance on most TVs until 2020, and even LG’s 2019 models have to convert a v2.1 input into four v2.0 lanes to drive the displays. DisplayPort 1.4 is fast enough to handle 4320p/30 with 4:2:2 10-bit color, but that’s about it.

(4) Newer codecs will be needed to pack down 8K signals into more manageable sizes. JPEG XS has been shown for compressing 8K/60 10-bit 4:2:0 by a ratio of 5:1 to fit the signal through a 10-gigabit network switch. For high-latency codecs, HEVC H.265 and the new Versatile Video Codec (VVC) will be required to do the heavy lifting.

Most attendees don’t understand this mad rush to 8K, but in my talk I pointed out that 8K R&D has been going on for over 20 years and the first 8K camera sensors were shown at NAB in 2006 – thirteen years ago. Sharp exhibited an 85-inch 8K LCD display at CES in 2012 – 7 years ago. And we appear to be stuck on a 7-year cycle to the next-higher TV resolution, one that started way back in 1998 when the first 720p plasma TVs were coming to market.

Overshadowing everything is 8K content. Where will it come from? Probably not optical disc, but more likely from the cloud over fast networks. NHK launched an 8K Hi-Vision satellite channel last December for viewers in Japan, but that’s it. For that matter, does it even matter that we have 8K content? The scaling engines being shown on 2019 8K TVs make extensive use of artificial intelligence to re-size 4K, Full HD, and even standard definition video to be viewed on an 8K set.

My closing point was that we should just stop obsessing over pixel resolution. Most viewers sit so far away that they would never spot the pixel structure on an Ultra HDTV, let alone 8K. Panel manufacturers may choose to push ever higher with pixels (Innolux showed a 15K display in August of 2018), but we should turn our attention to more important display metrics – color accuracy, consistent tone mapping with HDR content, and improved motion rendering, particularly with high frame rate (HFR) video on the way.

I’ve used the expression “building the plane while flying it” to describe the evolution of 4K and Ultra HD. It’s even more appropriate to describe the world of 8K: Some pieces are in place, others are coming, and some have yet to be developed and are years off.

Yet, here we go, ready or not…

CES 2019 In the Rear View Mirror

I’m not sure when I first started attending CES, but it was back around the turn of the century. My interests then lay primarily in display technologies – televisions, monitors, projectors, and all the gear that interfaced them to things like DVD players, HDTV set-top boxes, and early gaming consoles.

It wasn’t unusual to see manufacturers try to out-do each other in the race for the biggest display or the most pixels. We were wowed by 102-inch plasma TVs (a product that never came to market), 105-inch LCD monitors, “HD” projectors with 1280×720 resolution, upscaling DVD players, line quadruplers, and all kinds of external video signal processors that were designed to clean up standard-definition video, S-video, and analog component video.

Flash forward to 2019, and those times feel like early colonial America. Plasma is gone. “HD” in a front projector means at least 1920×1080 resolution, with an increasing number of home theater models offering 4K resolution. DVD players are fossils now and Blu-ray players have evolved with the times to support Ultra HD resolution.

Not that it matters much. More and more consumers are choosing to stream video content, thanks for faster, more reliable Internet and WiFi connections. Codecs have improved by several generations. The H.264 AVC format was just clearing the drawing board in 2002. Today, we have HEVC H.265, Google’s VP9, and now an even more efficient codec that promises to cut bit rates for 4K content by 50%.

Analog TV interfaces are all gone. It’s either HDMI or DisplayPort, or a streaming connection through WiFi or a Cat 6 cable. Those expensive video processing chips have multiplied in power so many times and shrunk accordingly that they are commonplace in Ultra HDTVs. At CES 2019, new “AI” processors can analyze multiple vectors and aspects of a frame of video and scale, color-correct, gamma-correct, and clean up compression artifacts in a flash.

LG’s got 8K TV covered with both LCD and OLED models.

 

Samsung’s Wall modular LED TV made an appearance again at CES. This time, it measures 219 inches diagonally.

I saw several demos of standard-definition video scaled up to 4K and even 8K TVs and was impressed at just how well these advanced chips work. Unfortunately, there’s lot of potential for mischief with these processors, such as changing the frame rate, gamma, black levels, and even color tone automatically without you asking. That’s progress for ya!

About the only thing that hasn’t changed since the early 2000s is the size of the largest LCD panels. If memory serves, Sharp held the record for many years with that 105-inch beast. Both Samsung and LG eventually wheeled out even larger panels and the record (so far as I can remember) was 120 inches for a VA LCD monitor, shown a few years back by Vizio and also by Samsung. Thing is, none of those products really took off: Today, the largest LCD TV you can buy is Samsung’s new 85-inch 8K offering, with 98-inch models lurking in the wings from LG, Samsung, Sony, and others.

The biggest change I’ve seen in the past decade is how televisions and related products have been de-emphasized at the show. No surprise there – TV prices have collapsed to the point where you can pick up a very nice 55-inch Ultra HD model with HDR support for about $6 per diagonal inch. There are plenty of 65-inch models priced below $1,000 and some 70-inch UHDTVs have dropped as low as $1,200 on sale.

TCL’s XESS “Living Window” TV is supposed to appear as if it’s floating in mid-air.

 

This 65-inch Skyworth UHDTV uses two LCD panels to improve black levels and contrast.

Price drops have been dramatic for both LCD and OLED models. LG just announced special pricing for the next two weeks on 55-inch Ultra HD B8-series TVs ($1500) and 65-inch B8s ($2300). Vizio announced during CES that their 2019 M-series and P-series UHDTV sets will incorporate quantum dots for high dynamic range video, and you can be sure they’ll have aggressive pricing on all models.

Also, not surprisingly, there’s less profit in selling televisions these days, which is why most of the big exhibitors at CES have reduced the footprint in their booths for showing off TVs, allocating more space for everything from refrigerators and washers to smartphones, tablets, small appliances, laptops, and even automotive electronics. Secondarily, many of us analysts and journalists have expanded our coverage to include video encoders, decoders, and signal management systems, video streaming, cloud storage and asset management, and peripheral markets like transportation.

Without further ado, here are some of my highlights from the show.

Sony will offer XBR-Z9G Master-series 85-inch and 98-inch 8K LCD TVs with HDR, complementing their OLED TV lineup.

 

Hisense claims its Adonis 8K display uses micro LEDs for backlights, but they’re more likely “mini” LEDs.

“Yes Virginia, there are 8K televisions!” And CES was awash in them, from LG’s 88-inch OLED to Samsung’s 85-inch QLED 8K. (LG also had 75-inch LCD sets using their NanoCell color filter technology.) Sony showed 85-inch and 98-inch 8K model in their booth to complement their line of 4K OLED TVs. Sharp, which is planning to re-enter the television business in the near future, will offer 60-inch, 70-inch, and 80-inch 8K TVs. TCL, Hisense, Konka, Skyworth, and Changhong also unveiled 8K TV prototypes.

I counted over a dozen different models, including more than a few showing next-generation backlight technology based on “mini” LED arrays. (A few of the demos referred to “micro” LED backlight arrays, but that’s unlikely at this date due to manufacturing challenges.) The advantage of “mini” backlights is more and smaller areas of local dimming, improving contrast and high dynamic range response.

Sharp’s planned re-entry into the television business is intriguing, considering the company’s near-bankruptcy a few years ago and the subsequent purchase of 66% of the company by Hon Hai Precision Industries (Foxconn). Instead of borrowing more money from Japanese banks to stay afloat, Sharp now has Terry Ghou’s huge bankroll to plan its product line and marketing, not to mention a complete line-up of 8K televisions, the BC-60A 8K broadcast camera, an 8K non-linear editing system, and an 8K asset storage and retrieval system (cloud based, of course).

Sharp wants back in to the premium TV business and showed wide range of 8K products, including content streaming.

 

Stream TV networks showed an 8K desktop monitor and his 65-inch autostereo 8K TV. 3D isn’t quite dead yet!

“This will DEFINITELY be the year for 60 GHz wireless!” I’ve lost track of how many 60 GHz wireless video demos I’ve seen over the past decade from companies like Silicon Image and its successor Lattice Semiconductor, DVDO, Qualcomm, and Intel (not to mention the WiFi Alliance). Products come and go (remember the 15 different tri-band WiFi modems from 2016?), but the technology seems to be stuck in a rut.

Maybe 2019 will be different. Keyssa demonstrated near-field connectivity of everything from tablets to TVs and snap-on LED tiles using its KISS technology. The chips are about as big as a deer tick, but the principle is that of coupled energy over a maximum 10mm air gap to transport data in a half-duplex mode at up to 6 Gb/s per lane. To prove the weight-lifting capabilities of this tin titan, Keyssa also built a wireless backplane dock that uses 32 KISS channels to stream 8K video at 96 gigabits per second. (Yes, it IS that fast!)

Several floors up in The Westgate Hotel, Canadian fabless semiconductor company Peraso also has a few millimeter-wave tricks up its sleeve. In addition to 4K wireless USB links, Peraso also showed 60 GHz 802.11ad WiFi access points for high-speed in-room video streaming and super-fast data downloads. At this frequency, radio waves can’t penetrate solid objects, nor is it at all easy to intercept them. That combination provides very robust security, and I’m still puzzled why more manufacturers haven’t adopted the technology.

Did you know you can couple 60 GHz wireless 4K video signals over flexible plastic rods? Keyssa does.

 

This ready-to-buy 60 GHz wireless access point uses chipsets from Peraso.

On the show floor (near its ‘connected beer’ exhibit, I kid you not), Qualcomm had an intriguing demo of super-fast gaming using 60 GHz links from smartphones. There are six channels available in this band, each of which is a little over 2 GHz in size. With light compression, there is near zero latency for gamers. And with steerable antenna arrays, multiple players can work with different screens on the same channels and never interfere with each other.

“Interfaces will get faster. Believe me!” With 8K and HDR looming (not to mention high frame rate video), our display interfaces need to get a heckuva lot faster in a real hurry. Over in the HDMI pavilion, there was a demonstration of Samsung’s Q900R 85-inch 8K TV showing custom 8K video content through an HDMI 2.1 interface built by chip maker Invecas. Given that only Socionext is currently shipping v2.1 TX/RX sets, I had to grill the Invecas rep to verify that “no, you won’t find HDMI 2.1 on the Samsung set currently.” (It’s currently equipped with one HDMI 2.0 interface).

During its press conference on Tuesday, LG claimed that their 2019 8K TVs will “support HDMI 2.1.” Presumably, this means there is some sort of upgrade path for models released earlier in the year, inasmuch as there is still a lot of testing and compliance certification to be done before manufacturers can start rolling out version 2.1. Samsung, for their part, has an upgrade option on the 85-inch model.

Over in the DisplayPort booth, it was announced that DP 2.0 will begin rolling out later in the year. V2.0 raises the per-lane data rate from 8.1 Gb/s to an astounding 24 Gb/s for a total data rate across all four lanes of 96 Gb/s. (Subtract 20% for overhead bits to get the real rate). This is clearly optical fiber territory – I’m not aware of anyone transporting data at this speed over copper links. And while that may seem like a lot of horsepower, keep in mind that an 8K/60 signal with 10-bit RGB color will require about 85 Gb/s to travel.

Invecas demonstrated an 8K home theater, using HDMI 2.1 connections. It will be a while before you see v2.1 on any TVs, though.

 

DisplayPort 2.0 is coming! In the meantime, v1.4 can drive three monitors simultaneously – and with different 4K video on each.

“Taking displays to another level!” Skyworth showed a 65-inch 4K TV using a dual-panel LCD structure. One panel delivers the full-color HDR images while the second panel acts simply as a monochromatic light modulator. In effect, it’s another shutter, allowing the display to achieve OLED-like black levels and very high peak (specular) whites while maintaining a wide contrast ratio. Not a new trick – Panasonic showed a similar approach for a 31.5” HDR 4K monitor a couple of years ago – but this is the first time I’ve seen it in a consumer TV.

In the LG Display booth, among the curved and transparent OLEDs, I found LG’s In-Touch system. Unlike conventional touchscreen film overlays on displays, In-Touch places the touch sensors directly below the LCD glass surface. This results not only in a more sensitive touchscreen, but it’s also a lot more accurate as the gap between the surface and sensors is greatly reduced.

And it appears that the fascination with curved displays has gone the way of 3D. I spotted only one curved 65-inch Ultra HDTV, and that was in the TCL booth. Samsung won an award for its LG was more focused on its premium roll-up/down 4K OLED TVs, a concept first shown last year at CES by LG Display. These roll-up sets don’t have a price yet, but will be part of LG’s Signature OLED line.

Samsung’s 75-inch micro LED TV prototype might have been the only true “micro” shown at CES.

 

Lumens’ .57″ green micro LED display has Full HD resolution for near-to-eye displays. And it’s bright!

Samsung did show a 75-inch class micro LED TV prototype at their Sunday preview event, an interesting demo for a company that apparently wants to get out of the LCD manufacturing business and concentrate on purely emissive LED TVs and displays, going forward. Of all the demonstrations of micro LED, I have no doubt that Samsung’s prototype is the real thing. Keep in mind that we’re taking about tiny LED chips that measure less than 50 micrometers (µm), while “mini” LEDs are in the range of 100 µm to 200 µm.

Lumens demonstrated something a bit simpler but no less important: A .57” green (monochromatic) micro LED display, suitable for head-mounted displays. This device has Full HD (1920×1080) resolution and is capable of brightness levels in excess of 300 nits. Over in the Sands, Kopin showed its 2K OLED near-to-eye display, which is about the size of a quarter. And Vusix demonstrated its Blade AR glasses, which project a small color video image onto the lens surface that isn’t quite as detailed and contrasty a I expected.

I’ll close out this report with a mention of the next-generation video codec for compressing 4K and 8K video. Fraunhofer had a small exhibit that was easy to miss, detailing the Versatile Video Codec (VVC). VVC builds on the coding tree block and unit structure of HEVC H.265 and makes analysis and compression decisions on a more granular level. This codec requires a considerable increase in computing power, but the target of the Joint Video Experts Team (JVET) is to achieve a 50%  bitrate reduction for comparable image quality over H.265. Look for the final standard in 2020.

The Versatile Video Codec can stream 4K content at 2.2 Mb/s that looks as good as H.265 at 5 Mb/s.

 

Audi’s been using red OLEDs in their tailights for some time now. (You didn’t know?)

 

Roll-up TVs are here, thanks to LG. Now you see them, now you don’t!

 

 

 

 

 

HDMI 2.1 Update – Pretty Much Status Quo

Last Thursday, a joint press conference was held in New York City by the HDMI Licensing Administrator to update attendees on the latest version of HDMI – version 2.1.

V2.1, which was officially announced at CES in 2017, represents a quantum leap over earlier versions. It’s the first HDMI architecture to use a packet-based signaling structure, unlike earlier versions that employed transition-minimized differential signaling (TMDS). By moving to a packet transport (an architecture which V 2.1 apparently borrowed a lot from DisplayPort, according to my sources), the maximum data rate could be expanded several-fold from the previous cap of 18 gigabits per second (Gb/s) to a stratospheric 48 Gb/s.

What’s more, the clock reference can now travel embedded in one of the four lanes. Previously, HDMI versions up to 2.0 were limited to three signal lanes and one clock lane. And of course, a digital packet-based signal stream lends itself well to compression, accomplished with VESA’s Display Stream Compression (DSC) system that is also the basis for Aptovision’s Blue River NT technology.

The HDMI Forum simply had to kick up the performance of the interface. Version 2.0, announced five years ago, was perceived by many (including me) to be too slow right out of the gate, especially when compared to DisplayPort 1.2 (18 Gb/s vs. 21.6 Gb/s). That perception was prescient: Just half a decade later, Ultra HDTVs are rapidly approaching the unit shipment numbers of Full HD models, and the bandwidth demands of high dynamic range (HDR) imaging with wide color gamuts (WCG) need much faster highways, especially with RGB (4:4:4) color encoding and 10-bit and 12-bit color rendering.

And if we needed any more proof that a faster interface was overdue, along comes 8K. Samsung is already shipping an 8K TV in the U.S. as of this writing, and Sharp has introduced a model in Japan. LG’s bringing out an 8K OLED TV in early 2019, and Dell has a 32-inch 8K LCD monitor for your desktop.

To drive this point home, IHS analyst Paul Gagnon showed numbers that call for 430,000 shipments of 8K TVs in 2019, growing to 1.9 million in 2020 and to 5.4 million in 2022. 70% of that capacity is expected to go to China, with North America making up 15% market share and western Europe 7%. Presumably, at least one of the signal inputs on these TVs will support HDMI 2.1, as even a basic 8K video signal (60p, 10-bit 4:2:0) will require a data rate of about 36 Gb/s, while a 4:2:2 version demands 48 Gb/s – right at the red line. (DSC would cut both of those rates in half).

Aside from stating that over 900 million HDMI-equipped devices are expected to ship in 2019 (including everything from medical cameras to karaoke machines,) HDMI Licensing CEO Rob Tobias didn’t offer much in the way of real news. But I had a few deeper questions, the first of which was “Is there now native support for optical interfaces in the HDMI 2.1 standard?” (Answer – no, not yet.)

My next question was about manufacturers of V2.1 transmitter/receiver chipsets. Had any been announced that could actually support 48 Gb/s? According to Tobias, HDMI Forum member Socionext, a chip manufacturer in Japan, has begun production on said chipsets. I followed that reply up with a question about manufacturer support for DSC in televisions and other CE devices, but couldn’t get a specific answer.

Much of the discussion among these panel members and David Meyer (director of technical content for CEDIA), Brad Bramy, VP of marketing for HDMI LA, and Scott Kleinle, director of product management for Legrand (a supplier to the CEDIA industry) was focusing on future-proofing residential installations that used HDMI interconnects.

But why not just go optical for all HDMI 2.1 connections and guarantee future-proofing? The responses I got to my last question were mostly along the line of “The installer just wants it to work the first time.” Yes, there are faster (Ultra High Speed) HDMI cables available now to work with V2.1 connections. But an HDMI cable that has to run 20, 30, or 40 feet at over a GHz clock rate is a pretty fat cable!

Multimode fiber cable is inexpensive compared to Cat 6 cable and the terminations are not difficult to install. Running strands of fiber through conduit, stone, and behind walls seems to be the most logical solution at the required speeds and is certainly what I’d recommend to installers in the commercial AV market. Properly terminated, optical fiber works the first time and very time and can run over a mile without significant signal degradation.

Once again, the HDMI Forum will have a booth at CES in the lower South Hall. With a new display wrinkle lurking in the shadows – high frame rate (HDR) video – there will be more upward pressure than ever on data rates for display connections. HDMI 2.1 may be up to the task (most likely aided by DSC), so I will be curious to see if there are any 8K/120 demos in Las Vegas. – PP

R.I.P For Home Theater Projectors?

Recent trends in large flat screen displays have me wondering if we are seeing the beginning of the end for home theater front projection. (We are already seeing pressure on front projection for commercial markets, but that’s a topic for another time.)

Earlier this month, both Samsung and LG announced they would release 80-inch-class 8K displays for the home. For Samsung, it’s an 85-inch 8K LCD with quantum dot backlights for supporting high dynamic range, while LG moves forward with an 88-inch 8K OLED, also HDR-compatible but not nearly as bright as the Samsung offering.

Wait – what? 8K TVs for the home!?!? you’re probably thinking. Yep, 8K is here, and wow, did it arrive in a hurry! That’s because the Chinese manufacturers have basically collapsed pricing in the Ultra HDTV market over just three short years. You’d be nuts NOT to buy a new Ultra HDTV with prices this low, as some models can be had with HDR support for just $9 per diagonal inch.

We already have an abundance of 80-inch-class Ultra HD flat screen displays and their prices are quite reasonable. A quick check of the Best Buy Web site shows Sony’s XBR85X850F for $3,999. It’s an 85-inch LCD with HDR and “smart” connectivity. The same page listed a Samsung QN82Q6FNAFXZA (82 inches, QLED) for $3,499 and Samsung’s UN82NU8000FXZA (82 inches, HDR, QLED) for $2,999.

Got a few more bucks in your pocket? For $19,999, you can have the new Samsung QN85Q900RAFXZA, a top-of-the-line Ultra HD QLED TV. For $14,999, you can pick up LG’s OLED77W8PUA 77-inch OLED (not quite 80-inches, but close enough). (And for you cheapskates, there were several Ultra HDTVs in the 75-inch class for less than $2,500.)

Sony’s 85-inch XBR85X850F has the same retail price as a Full HD LCD projector did ten years ago. And you can lose the screen.

If you currently have a home theater, chances are the projection screen is in the range of 80 to 90 inches. Just two years ago, replacing that setup with a flat screen LCD would have been quite an expensive proposition. But today, you can purchase one of those 80+ inch beauties for less than what a 50-inch Pioneer Elite plasma would have cost ten years ago. (And 50 inches seems pretty small now, doesn’t it?)

When I last upgraded my home theater (which was around 2006-2007), I replaced a Sony CRT projector with a Mitsubishi HC5000 (later an HC 6000). That was a Full HD 3LCD model with beautiful color management. I’ve thought about upgrading it over the years even though I hardly use the theater anymore. But looking at these prices, I’d probably be better off just removing the projector and screen and moving to a one-piece flat screen setup.

There are a bunch of reasons why that would be a good idea. For one thing, I have a few older home theater projectors left in my studio and all of them use short-arc lamps that contain metal halides of mercury. If I was to upgrade to a new projector, it would have to use an LED illumination system – and those are still more expensive with 4K resolution than flat screen TVs.

Second, I could get rid of my 92-inch projection screen and hang some more art on the wall. (It previously replaced an 82-inch screen, and frankly, that was large enough for the room.) I could also eliminate a ceiling power and AC connection and a bunch of wiring from my AV receiver. All of that stuff would be consolidated in a small space under the new TV. (Who knows? I might even go ‘commando’ and just use a soundbar/subwoofer combination!)

I’m sure I’m not the only person who (a) built a home theater in the late 1990s, (b) upgraded the main family room/living room TV to a large, cheap flat screen a decade later, and (c) now spends more time watching that family/living room TV than using the home theater. Mitsubishi exited the projector business almost eight years ago, so I’d never be able to get my 6000 fixed. (But I hardly use it anyway, so who cares?)

Even a 75-inch TV would work, and there are plenty of those available at bargain-basement prices. Hisense showed an HDR Ultra HD model (75EU8070) for just a hair over $1,000 and Vizio’s E75-E3 will set you back only $300 more. For those prices, you can hardly go wrong – if you don’t like it a year from now, just recycle it and buy a new one (for less money).

There’s a parallel trend in movie theaters, where the first fine-pitch LED displays are making tentative steps toward replacing high-powered projectors.  Pacific Theaters Winnetka in Chatsworth, California installed a 34×17 Samsung fine-pitch LED screen last year and claims it can hit higher levels of peak brightness (3,000 – 4,000 cd/m2 shouldn’t be difficult) for true high dynamic range. And of course, LEDs can achieve an enormous color gamut and very deep blacks when off, characteristics of emissive displays.

With ongoing developments in LED technology, we’re likely to see more theaters adopt the LED platform – no projection lamp to replace, because there’s no projector to operate. There are issues about aspect ratios and content formatting to resolve, but we figured them out for digital cinema when we turned our backs on motion picture film.

So why not have our home theater work the same way and get rid of the projector? For that matter, it’s possible and even likely within a decade that LCD and OLED TVs will both be replaced by fine-pitch or ‘micro’ LED displays, giving us the same experience as a state-of-the-art theater.

And home theater projectors will wind up curiosities of an earlier age, like Super 8mm and slide projectors…something Grandpa and Grandma used, along with optical disc players……