Posts Tagged ‘8k’

HDMI 2.1 Update – Pretty Much Status Quo

Last Thursday, a joint press conference was held in New York City by the HDMI Licensing Administrator to update attendees on the latest version of HDMI – version 2.1.

V2.1, which was officially announced at CES in 2017, represents a quantum leap over earlier versions. It’s the first HDMI architecture to use a packet-based signaling structure, unlike earlier versions that employed transition-minimized differential signaling (TMDS). By moving to a packet transport (an architecture which V 2.1 apparently borrowed a lot from DisplayPort, according to my sources), the maximum data rate could be expanded several-fold from the previous cap of 18 gigabits per second (Gb/s) to a stratospheric 48 Gb/s.

What’s more, the clock reference can now travel embedded in one of the four lanes. Previously, HDMI versions up to 2.0 were limited to three signal lanes and one clock lane. And of course, a digital packet-based signal stream lends itself well to compression, accomplished with VESA’s Display Stream Compression (DSC) system that is also the basis for Aptovision’s Blue River NT technology.

The HDMI Forum simply had to kick up the performance of the interface. Version 2.0, announced five years ago, was perceived by many (including me) to be too slow right out of the gate, especially when compared to DisplayPort 1.2 (18 Gb/s vs. 21.6 Gb/s). That perception was prescient: Just half a decade later, Ultra HDTVs are rapidly approaching the unit shipment numbers of Full HD models, and the bandwidth demands of high dynamic range (HDR) imaging with wide color gamuts (WCG) need much faster highways, especially with RGB (4:4:4) color encoding and 10-bit and 12-bit color rendering.

And if we needed any more proof that a faster interface was overdue, along comes 8K. Samsung is already shipping an 8K TV in the U.S. as of this writing, and Sharp has introduced a model in Japan. LG’s bringing out an 8K OLED TV in early 2019, and Dell has a 32-inch 8K LCD monitor for your desktop.

To drive this point home, IHS analyst Paul Gagnon showed numbers that call for 430,000 shipments of 8K TVs in 2019, growing to 1.9 million in 2020 and to 5.4 million in 2022. 70% of that capacity is expected to go to China, with North America making up 15% market share and western Europe 7%. Presumably, at least one of the signal inputs on these TVs will support HDMI 2.1, as even a basic 8K video signal (60p, 10-bit 4:2:0) will require a data rate of about 36 Gb/s, while a 4:2:2 version demands 48 Gb/s – right at the red line. (DSC would cut both of those rates in half).

Aside from stating that over 900 million HDMI-equipped devices are expected to ship in 2019 (including everything from medical cameras to karaoke machines,) HDMI Licensing CEO Rob Tobias didn’t offer much in the way of real news. But I had a few deeper questions, the first of which was “Is there now native support for optical interfaces in the HDMI 2.1 standard?” (Answer – no, not yet.)

My next question was about manufacturers of V2.1 transmitter/receiver chipsets. Had any been announced that could actually support 48 Gb/s? According to Tobias, HDMI Forum member Socionext, a chip manufacturer in Japan, has begun production on said chipsets. I followed that reply up with a question about manufacturer support for DSC in televisions and other CE devices, but couldn’t get a specific answer.

Much of the discussion among these panel members and David Meyer (director of technical content for CEDIA), Brad Bramy, VP of marketing for HDMI LA, and Scott Kleinle, director of product management for Legrand (a supplier to the CEDIA industry) was focusing on future-proofing residential installations that used HDMI interconnects.

But why not just go optical for all HDMI 2.1 connections and guarantee future-proofing? The responses I got to my last question were mostly along the line of “The installer just wants it to work the first time.” Yes, there are faster (Ultra High Speed) HDMI cables available now to work with V2.1 connections. But an HDMI cable that has to run 20, 30, or 40 feet at over a GHz clock rate is a pretty fat cable!

Multimode fiber cable is inexpensive compared to Cat 6 cable and the terminations are not difficult to install. Running strands of fiber through conduit, stone, and behind walls seems to be the most logical solution at the required speeds and is certainly what I’d recommend to installers in the commercial AV market. Properly terminated, optical fiber works the first time and very time and can run over a mile without significant signal degradation.

Once again, the HDMI Forum will have a booth at CES in the lower South Hall. With a new display wrinkle lurking in the shadows – high frame rate (HDR) video – there will be more upward pressure than ever on data rates for display connections. HDMI 2.1 may be up to the task (most likely aided by DSC), so I will be curious to see if there are any 8K/120 demos in Las Vegas. – PP

R.I.P For Home Theater Projectors?

Recent trends in large flat screen displays have me wondering if we are seeing the beginning of the end for home theater front projection. (We are already seeing pressure on front projection for commercial markets, but that’s a topic for another time.)

Earlier this month, both Samsung and LG announced they would release 80-inch-class 8K displays for the home. For Samsung, it’s an 85-inch 8K LCD with quantum dot backlights for supporting high dynamic range, while LG moves forward with an 88-inch 8K OLED, also HDR-compatible but not nearly as bright as the Samsung offering.

Wait – what? 8K TVs for the home!?!? you’re probably thinking. Yep, 8K is here, and wow, did it arrive in a hurry! That’s because the Chinese manufacturers have basically collapsed pricing in the Ultra HDTV market over just three short years. You’d be nuts NOT to buy a new Ultra HDTV with prices this low, as some models can be had with HDR support for just $9 per diagonal inch.

We already have an abundance of 80-inch-class Ultra HD flat screen displays and their prices are quite reasonable. A quick check of the Best Buy Web site shows Sony’s XBR85X850F for $3,999. It’s an 85-inch LCD with HDR and “smart” connectivity. The same page listed a Samsung QN82Q6FNAFXZA (82 inches, QLED) for $3,499 and Samsung’s UN82NU8000FXZA (82 inches, HDR, QLED) for $2,999.

Got a few more bucks in your pocket? For $19,999, you can have the new Samsung QN85Q900RAFXZA, a top-of-the-line Ultra HD QLED TV. For $14,999, you can pick up LG’s OLED77W8PUA 77-inch OLED (not quite 80-inches, but close enough). (And for you cheapskates, there were several Ultra HDTVs in the 75-inch class for less than $2,500.)

Sony’s 85-inch XBR85X850F has the same retail price as a Full HD LCD projector did ten years ago. And you can lose the screen.

If you currently have a home theater, chances are the projection screen is in the range of 80 to 90 inches. Just two years ago, replacing that setup with a flat screen LCD would have been quite an expensive proposition. But today, you can purchase one of those 80+ inch beauties for less than what a 50-inch Pioneer Elite plasma would have cost ten years ago. (And 50 inches seems pretty small now, doesn’t it?)

When I last upgraded my home theater (which was around 2006-2007), I replaced a Sony CRT projector with a Mitsubishi HC5000 (later an HC 6000). That was a Full HD 3LCD model with beautiful color management. I’ve thought about upgrading it over the years even though I hardly use the theater anymore. But looking at these prices, I’d probably be better off just removing the projector and screen and moving to a one-piece flat screen setup.

There are a bunch of reasons why that would be a good idea. For one thing, I have a few older home theater projectors left in my studio and all of them use short-arc lamps that contain metal halides of mercury. If I was to upgrade to a new projector, it would have to use an LED illumination system – and those are still more expensive with 4K resolution than flat screen TVs.

Second, I could get rid of my 92-inch projection screen and hang some more art on the wall. (It previously replaced an 82-inch screen, and frankly, that was large enough for the room.) I could also eliminate a ceiling power and AC connection and a bunch of wiring from my AV receiver. All of that stuff would be consolidated in a small space under the new TV. (Who knows? I might even go ‘commando’ and just use a soundbar/subwoofer combination!)

I’m sure I’m not the only person who (a) built a home theater in the late 1990s, (b) upgraded the main family room/living room TV to a large, cheap flat screen a decade later, and (c) now spends more time watching that family/living room TV than using the home theater. Mitsubishi exited the projector business almost eight years ago, so I’d never be able to get my 6000 fixed. (But I hardly use it anyway, so who cares?)

Even a 75-inch TV would work, and there are plenty of those available at bargain-basement prices. Hisense showed an HDR Ultra HD model (75EU8070) for just a hair over $1,000 and Vizio’s E75-E3 will set you back only $300 more. For those prices, you can hardly go wrong – if you don’t like it a year from now, just recycle it and buy a new one (for less money).

There’s a parallel trend in movie theaters, where the first fine-pitch LED displays are making tentative steps toward replacing high-powered projectors.  Pacific Theaters Winnetka in Chatsworth, California installed a 34×17 Samsung fine-pitch LED screen last year and claims it can hit higher levels of peak brightness (3,000 – 4,000 cd/m2 shouldn’t be difficult) for true high dynamic range. And of course, LEDs can achieve an enormous color gamut and very deep blacks when off, characteristics of emissive displays.

With ongoing developments in LED technology, we’re likely to see more theaters adopt the LED platform – no projection lamp to replace, because there’s no projector to operate. There are issues about aspect ratios and content formatting to resolve, but we figured them out for digital cinema when we turned our backs on motion picture film.

So why not have our home theater work the same way and get rid of the projector? For that matter, it’s possible and even likely within a decade that LCD and OLED TVs will both be replaced by fine-pitch or ‘micro’ LED displays, giving us the same experience as a state-of-the-art theater.

And home theater projectors will wind up curiosities of an earlier age, like Super 8mm and slide projectors…something Grandpa and Grandma used, along with optical disc players……

InfoComm 2018 In The Rear View Mirror

If you managed to make it out to this year’s running of InfoComm, you might have summarized your trip to colleagues with these talking points:

(a) LED displays, and

(b) AV-over-IT.

Indeed; it was impossible to escape these two trends. LED walls and cubes were everywhere in the Las Vegas Convention Center, in many cases promoted by a phalanx of Chinese brands you’ve likely never heard of. But make no mistake about it – LEDs are the future of displays, whether they are used for massive outdoor signage or compact indoor arrays.

With the development of micro LED technology, we’re going to see an expansion of LEDs into televisions, monitors, and even that smart watch on your wrist. (Yes, Apple is working on micro LEDs for personal electronics.)

Projector manufacturers are understandably nervous about the inroads LEDs are making into large venues. Indeed; this author recently saw Paul Simon’s “farewell tour” performance at the Wells Fargo Center in Philadelphia, and the backdrop was an enormous widescreen LED wall that provided crystal-clear image magnification (very handy when concertgoers around you are up and dancing, blocking your view of the stage).

 

As for the other talking point – well, it was impossible to avoid in conversations at InfoComm. Between manufacturers hawking their “ideal” solutions for compressing and streaming audio and video and all of the seminars in classrooms and booths, you’d think that AV-over-IT is a done deal.

The truth is a little different. Not all installations are looking to route signals through a 10 Gb/s Cisco switch. In fact, a brand-spanking-new studio built for ESPN in lower Manhattan, overlooking the East River and the Brooklyn Bridge, relies on almost 500 circuits of 3G SDI video through an enormous router. Any network-centric signal distribution within this space is mostly for IT traffic.

That’s not to say that installers are poo-pooing AV-over-IT and the new SMPTE 2110 standards for network distribution of deterministic video. It’s still early in the game and sometimes tried-and-tested signal distribution methods like SDI are perfectly acceptable, especially in the case of this particular facility with its 1080p/60 backbone.

Even so, the writing on the all couldn’t be more distinct with respect to LEDs and network distribution of AV. But there were other concerns at the show that didn’t receive nearly as much media attention.

At the IMCCA Emerging Trends session on Tuesday, several presentations focused on interfacing humans and technology. With “OK Google” and Alexa all the rage, discussions focused on how fast these consumer interfaces would migrate to AV control systems. An important point was made about the need for two-factor authentication – simple voice control might not be adequately secure for say, a boardroom in a large financial institution.

What would the second factor be? Facial recognition? (This was a popular suggestion.) Fingerprints? Retinal scans? A numeric code that could be spoken or entered on a keypad? The name of your favorite pet? Given that hackers in England recently gained access to a casino’s customer database via an Internet-connected thermometer in a fish tank, two-factor authentication for AV control systems doesn’t seem like a bad idea.

Another topic of discussion was 8K video. With a majority of display manufacturers showing 4K LCD (and in some cases OLED) monitors in Vegas, the logical question was: Could resolutions be pushed higher? Of course, the answer is a resounding “yes!”

Display analysts predict there will be over 5 million 8K televisions shipped by 2022 and we’re bound to see commercial monitors adapted from those products. But 8K doesn’t have to be achieved in a single, stand-alone display: With the advent of smaller 4K monitors (some as small as 43 inches), it is a simple matter to tile a 2×2 array to achieve 7680×4320 pixels. And there doesn’t appear to be a shortage of customers for such a display, especially in the command and control and process control verticals.

The other conversations of interest revolved around the need for faster wireless. We now have 802.1ac channel bonding, with 802.11ax on the horizon. For in-room super-speed WiFi, 802.11ad provides six channels at 60 GHz, each 2 GHz wide or 100x the bandwidth of individual channels at 2.4 and 5 GHz.

But wise voices counsel to pay attention to 5G mobile networks, which promise download speeds of 1 Gb/s. While not appropriate for in-room AV connectivity, 5G delivery of streaming video assets to classrooms and meetings is inevitable. Some purveyors of wireless connectivity services like AT&T and Verizon insist that 5G could eventually make WiFi obsolete. (That’s a bit of a stretch, but this author understands the motivation for making such a claim.)

The point of this missive? Simply that our industry is headed for some mind-boggling changes in the next decade. Networked AV, LEDs, 8K video and displays, multi-factor authentication for control systems, and super-fast wireless connections are all in the wings.

And if you were observant at InfoComm, you know it’s coming…and quickly.

NAB 2018 In The Rear View Mirror

I just returned from my annual visit to the NAB Show in Las Vegas and the overall impression was of an industry (or industries) marching in place. Many booths were smaller; there were plenty of empty spaces filled with tables and chairs for eating and lounging, and at times you could hear crickets chirping in the North and Central Halls.  (Not so the South Hall, which was a madhouse all three days I visited.)

There are a number of possible reasons for this lack of energy. The broadcast and film industries are taking the first steps to move to IP backbones for everything from production to post and distribution, and it’s moving slowly. Even so, there was no shortage of vendors trying to convince booth visitors that AV-over-IT is the way to go, chop-chop!

Some NAB exhibitors that were formerly powerhouses in traditional media production infrastructures have staked their entire business model on IT, with flashy exhibits featuring powerful codecs, cloud media storage and retrieval, high dynamic range (HDR) imaging, and production workflows (editing, color correction, and visual effects) all interconnected via an IT infrastructure.

And, of course, there is now a SMPTE standard for transporting professional media over managed AV networks (note the word “managed”), and that’s ST 2110. The pertinent documents that define the standards are (to date) SMPTE ST 2110-10/-20/-30 for addressing system concerns and uncompressed video and audio streams, and SMPTE ST 2110-21 for specifying traffic shaping and delivery timing of uncompressed video.

No doubt about it – the Central Hall booths were definitely smaller and quieter this year.

 

Canon’s Larry Thorpe and Ivo Norenberg talked about the company’s new 50-1000mm zoom lens for Full HD cameras.

 

BlackMagic Design’s Pocket Cinema 4K Camera is quite popular – and affordable.

Others at NAB weren’t so sure about this rush to IT and extolled the virtues of next-generation SDI (6G, 12G, and even 24G). Their argument is that deterministic video doesn’t always travel well with the non-real-time traffic you find on networks. And the “pro” SDI crowd may have an argument, based on all of the 12G connectivity demos we saw. 3G video, to be more specific, runs at about 2.97 Gb/s, so a 12G connection would be good for 11.88 Gb/s – fast enough to transport an uncompressed 4K/60 video signal with 8-bit 4:2:2 color or 10-bit 4:2:0 color.

I’ve talked about 8K video and displays in previous columns, but mostly from a science experiment perspective. Well, we were quite surprised – perhaps pleasantly – to see Sharp exhibiting at NAB, showing an entire acquisition, editing, production, storage, and display system for 8K video. (Yes, that Sharp, the same guys that make those huge LCD displays. Now owned by Hon Hai precision industries.)

Sharp’s 8K broadcast camera, more accurately the 8C-B60A, uses a single Super 35mm sensor with effective resolution of 7680×4320 pixels arrayed in a Bayer format. That’s 16 times the resolution of a Full HD camera, which means data rates that are 16x that of 3G SDI. In case you are math challenged, we’re talking in the range of 48 Gb/s of data for a 4320p/60 video signal with 8-bit 4:2:2 color, which requires four 12G connections.

Sharp is building 8K cameras for live coverage of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.

 

NHK demonstrated an 8K 240Hz slow motion video playback system, along with other 8K goodies.

 

Soliton demonstrated H.265 encoding across multiple platforms, including Android devices.

And this isn’t a science experiment at all. Sharp is building cameras for the live 8K broadcasts to take place at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, originating from Japanese broadcast network NHK. By now, this should be old hat, as NHK has been covering the Olympics in 8K since 2012 and showed different approaches to home viewing in Las Vegas. They also impressed with demos of 8K “slo-mo” video at a frame rate of 240 Hz, and yes, it is practical and ready to roll.

In the NHK booth, you could also watch a demonstration of 8K/60 video traveling through a 10 Gb/s switch using so-called mezzanine compression based on the TiCo system. In this case, NHK was using 5:1 TiCo compression to slow down a 40 Gb/s 8K/60 video stream to 8 Gb/s. (Four 12G video connections would result in a bit rate of nearly 48 Gb/s in case you’re wondering.)

Not far from NHK’s booth last year was a virtual city of companies showing virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) hardware and software. That was about twice the size of the VR/AR exhibits in 2016, so I expected to find a sprawling metropolis of VR goodies. Instead, I came across a very large food court and lots of partitioned-off space. Turns out, what was left of the VR companies occupied a small pavilion known as “Immersive Storytelling.” Is VR the next 3D? (Probably not, but you couldn’t be blamed for thinking that.)

Panasonic’s got a 55-inch 4K OLED monitor for client viewing.

 

Epson showed an ultra short-throw laser projection system with excellent edge-to-edge sharpness.

 

The gadgeteers at NTT built a drone with a spinning LED sign shaped like a globe. Why? Because they could, I suppose.

Upstairs in the South Hall, there were dozens of companies hawking video compression tools, streaming and cloud services, targeted ad insertion, audience analytics, and a bunch of other buzzwords I’m probably getting too old to completely understand. (It will be interesting to see how many of these enterprises are still around a year from now.)

But my primary goal in that hall was to talk to folks from the Alliance for Open Media coalition. In case you haven’t heard of this group, they’ve been promoting an open-source, royalty-free codec labeled AV-1 for “next-generation 4K video.” There are at least 18 prominent members of the group and you may recognize a few of them, such as Google, Apple, Mozilla, YouTube, Netflix, Facebook, and VideoLAN.

And that they’re promoting is a codec that is very similar to HEVC H.265, which is made up of lots of intellectual property that requires licensing from an organization known as MPEG-LA (Licensing Authority, not Los Angeles). The AOM contingent thinks it is taking WAY too long to get H.265 off the ground and would rather just make a suitable codec free to anyone who wants to use it to speed up the transition to 4K video.

In addition to giving out red, yellow, green, and blue lollipops, Google had its jump 360-degree camera out for inspection.

 

Technicolor claims to have solved the problem of rapid switching between different HDR formats streaming in the same program.

 

Keep an eye on the AV-1 codec. It could really upset the apple cart.

Of course, they didn’t have a ready answer when I questioned the future viability of any company that had sunk millions of dollars into H.265 development, only to see their hard work given away for free. The stock answers included “there will be winners and losers” and “some companies will probably be bought out.” Note that the primary goal of the members I listed is content delivery, not living off patent royalties, so that gives you some insights to their thinking.

The last puzzle piece was the new ATSC 3.0 standard for digital TV broadcasting, and it’s being tried out in several markets as I write this; most notably, Phoenix. ATSC 3.0 is not compatible with the current version 1.0 as it uses a different modulation process (ODM vs. VSB) and is very much intertwined with IP to make delivery to mobile devices practical. WRAL in Raleigh, North Carolina has been broadcasting in this format for almost a year now.

ATSC 3.0 is already being tested in several TV markets. Will it take off? And how will consumers choose to watch it?

 

CreateLED had this cool LED “waterfall” in their booth.

ATSC 3.0 is designed to be more bandwidth-efficient and can carry 1080p and 4K broadcasts along with high dynamic range video. At the show, I saw demos of ATSC 3.0 receivers married to 802.11ac WiFi routers, ATSC 3.0 set-top boxes, and even an autonomous shuttle vehicle between the Central and South Halls that was supposedly carrying live ATSC 3.0 mobile broadcasts. (It wasn’t working at the time, though. More crickets…)

All in all; a very subdued show, but reflective of an industry in transition from a world of deterministic video traveling uncompressed over coaxial cable to compressed audio and video packets streaming through wired and wireless networks with varying degrees of latency. Where do we go from here?

 

 

Heads Up! Here Comes 8K TV (or, The Case Of The Amazing Vanishing Pixels)

Yes, you read that right: 8K displays are coming. For that matter, 8K broadcasting has already been underway in Japan since 2012, and several companies are developing 8K video cameras to be shown at next month’s NAB show in Las Vegas.

“Hold on a minute!” you’re probably thinking. “I don’t even own a 4K TV yet. And now they’re already on the endangered species list?”

Well, not exactly. But two recent press releases show just how crazy the world of display technology has become.

The first release came from Insight Media in February and stated that, “The 2020 Tokyo Olympics will be a major driver in the development of 8K infrastructure with Japanese broadcaster NHK leading efforts to produce and broadcast Olympic programming to homes…cameras from Hitachi, Astrodesign, Ikegami, Sharp and Sony address the many challenges in capturing 8K video…the display industry plans for massive expansion of Gen 10.5 capacity, which will enable efficient production of 65″ and 75″ display panels for both LCD and OLED TV…. sales of 8K Flat Panel TVs are expected to increase from 0.1 million in 2018 to 5.8 million in 2022, with China leading the way representing more than 60% of the total market during this period.”

Read it again. Almost 6 million 8K LCD and OLED TVs are expected to be sold four years from now, and over 3 million of those sales will be in China.

But there’s more. Analyst firm IHS Markit issued their own forecasts for 8K TV earlier this month, predicting that, While ultra-high definition (UHD) panels are estimated to account for more than 98 percent of the 60-inch and larger display market in 2017, most TV panel suppliers are planning to mass produce 8K displays in 2018. The 7680 x 4320-pixel resolution display is expected to make up about 1 percent of the 60-inch and larger display market this year and 9 percent in 2020.”

According to HIS Markit, companies with skin in the 8K game include Innolux, which will supply 65-inch LCD panels to Sharp for use in consumer televisions and in commercial AV displays. Meanwhile, Sharp – which had previously shown an 85-inch 8K TV prototype – will ramp up production of a new 70-inch 8K LCD display (LV-70X500E) in their Sakai Gen 10 LCD plant. This display was shown in Sharp’s booth at ISE, along with their new 8K video camera.

Sharp showed this 8K camera (BC-B60A) at ISE…

 

…feeding this 70-inch 8K LCD monitor (LV-70X500E), a new glass cut from the Sakai Gen 10 fab.

Sony and Samsung are also expected to launch 8K LCD TVs this year. Both companies showed prototypes at CES with Samsung’s offering measuring about 85 inches. Sony’s prototype also measured 85 inches but included micro light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the backlight to achieve what Sony described as “full high dynamic range,” achieving peak (specular) brightness of 10,000 nits. (That’ll give you a pretty good sunburn!)

Oher players in 8K include LG Display, who already announced an 88-inch 8K OLED TV prior to CES, and Chinese fabricators BOE, AUO, and China Electronics Corporation (CEC). What’s even more interesting is that some of these 8K LCD and OLED panels will be equipped with indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) switching transistors.

No, IGZO isn’t a cure for aging. But what it does is provide much higher pixel density in a given screen size with lower power consumption. More importantly, it will allow these 8K TVs to refresh their pictures as fast as 120 Hz – double the normal refresh rate we use today. And that will be important as High Frame Rate (HFR) video production ramps up.

LG Display’s 88-inch 8K OLED display was a real eye-catcher at CES 2018.

Predictably, prices for TVs and monitors using panels with 4K resolution are collapsing. In the AV channel, 4K (Ultra HD) displays are only beginning to show up in product lines, but manufacturers are well aware of pricing trends with Ultra HD vs. Full HD (1920x1080p). With some consumer models now selling for as little as $8 per diagonal inch, the move from Full HD to 4K / Ultra HD will pick up lots of steam.

And with 8K displays now becoming a ‘premium’ product, 4K / Ultra HD will be the ‘everyday’ or mainstream display offering in screen sizes as small as 40 inches and as large as – well, you name it. We’ve already seen 84-inch, 88-inch, and 98-inch commercial displays, and prototypes as large as 120 inches – yes, 10’ of diagonal screen, wrap your head around that – have been exhibited at CES and other shows.

We saw quite a few demonstrations of 4K commercial displays at ISE and expect to see a whole lot more at InfoComm in June, along with the inevitable price wars. And there will be the usual “my encoder handles 4K better than yours with less latency” battles, shoot-outs, and arguments. But that could ultimately turn out to be the appetizer in this full-course meal.

For companies manufacturing signal distribution and switching equipment, 4K / Ultra HD already presents us with a full plate. 8K would be too much to bite off at present! Consider that an 8K/60 video signal using 12-bit RGB color requires a data rate approaching 100 gigabits per second (Gb/s), as compared to a 12-bit, 60 Hz Full HD signal’s rate of about 6 Gb/s, and you can see we will have some pretty steep hills to climb to manage 8K.

Distributing 8K over a network will be equally challenging and will require switching speeds somewhere north of 40 Gb/s even for a basic form of 8K video, which (we assume) will also incorporate high dynamic range and wide color gamuts. 40 Gb/s switches do exist but are pricey and would require 8K signals to be compressed by at least 25% to be manageable. And they’d certainly use optical fiber for all their connections.

To be sure, 4K / Ultra HD isn’t on the endangered species just yet. (For that matter, you can still buy Full HD monitors and TVs, if that’s any comfort.) But whether it makes sense or not – or whether we’re ready or not – it’s “full speed ahead” for 8K displays as we head into the third decade of the 21st century…