Posts Tagged ‘8K TV’

CES 2019 In the Rear View Mirror

I’m not sure when I first started attending CES, but it was back around the turn of the century. My interests then lay primarily in display technologies – televisions, monitors, projectors, and all the gear that interfaced them to things like DVD players, HDTV set-top boxes, and early gaming consoles.

It wasn’t unusual to see manufacturers try to out-do each other in the race for the biggest display or the most pixels. We were wowed by 102-inch plasma TVs (a product that never came to market), 105-inch LCD monitors, “HD” projectors with 1280×720 resolution, upscaling DVD players, line quadruplers, and all kinds of external video signal processors that were designed to clean up standard-definition video, S-video, and analog component video.

Flash forward to 2019, and those times feel like early colonial America. Plasma is gone. “HD” in a front projector means at least 1920×1080 resolution, with an increasing number of home theater models offering 4K resolution. DVD players are fossils now and Blu-ray players have evolved with the times to support Ultra HD resolution.

Not that it matters much. More and more consumers are choosing to stream video content, thanks for faster, more reliable Internet and WiFi connections. Codecs have improved by several generations. The H.264 AVC format was just clearing the drawing board in 2002. Today, we have HEVC H.265, Google’s VP9, and now an even more efficient codec that promises to cut bit rates for 4K content by 50%.

Analog TV interfaces are all gone. It’s either HDMI or DisplayPort, or a streaming connection through WiFi or a Cat 6 cable. Those expensive video processing chips have multiplied in power so many times and shrunk accordingly that they are commonplace in Ultra HDTVs. At CES 2019, new “AI” processors can analyze multiple vectors and aspects of a frame of video and scale, color-correct, gamma-correct, and clean up compression artifacts in a flash.

LG’s got 8K TV covered with both LCD and OLED models.

 

Samsung’s Wall modular LED TV made an appearance again at CES. This time, it measures 219 inches diagonally.

I saw several demos of standard-definition video scaled up to 4K and even 8K TVs and was impressed at just how well these advanced chips work. Unfortunately, there’s lot of potential for mischief with these processors, such as changing the frame rate, gamma, black levels, and even color tone automatically without you asking. That’s progress for ya!

About the only thing that hasn’t changed since the early 2000s is the size of the largest LCD panels. If memory serves, Sharp held the record for many years with that 105-inch beast. Both Samsung and LG eventually wheeled out even larger panels and the record (so far as I can remember) was 120 inches for a VA LCD monitor, shown a few years back by Vizio and also by Samsung. Thing is, none of those products really took off: Today, the largest LCD TV you can buy is Samsung’s new 85-inch 8K offering, with 98-inch models lurking in the wings from LG, Samsung, Sony, and others.

The biggest change I’ve seen in the past decade is how televisions and related products have been de-emphasized at the show. No surprise there – TV prices have collapsed to the point where you can pick up a very nice 55-inch Ultra HD model with HDR support for about $6 per diagonal inch. There are plenty of 65-inch models priced below $1,000 and some 70-inch UHDTVs have dropped as low as $1,200 on sale.

TCL’s XESS “Living Window” TV is supposed to appear as if it’s floating in mid-air.

 

This 65-inch Skyworth UHDTV uses two LCD panels to improve black levels and contrast.

Price drops have been dramatic for both LCD and OLED models. LG just announced special pricing for the next two weeks on 55-inch Ultra HD B8-series TVs ($1500) and 65-inch B8s ($2300). Vizio announced during CES that their 2019 M-series and P-series UHDTV sets will incorporate quantum dots for high dynamic range video, and you can be sure they’ll have aggressive pricing on all models.

Also, not surprisingly, there’s less profit in selling televisions these days, which is why most of the big exhibitors at CES have reduced the footprint in their booths for showing off TVs, allocating more space for everything from refrigerators and washers to smartphones, tablets, small appliances, laptops, and even automotive electronics. Secondarily, many of us analysts and journalists have expanded our coverage to include video encoders, decoders, and signal management systems, video streaming, cloud storage and asset management, and peripheral markets like transportation.

Without further ado, here are some of my highlights from the show.

Sony will offer XBR-Z9G Master-series 85-inch and 98-inch 8K LCD TVs with HDR, complementing their OLED TV lineup.

 

Hisense claims its Adonis 8K display uses micro LEDs for backlights, but they’re more likely “mini” LEDs.

“Yes Virginia, there are 8K televisions!” And CES was awash in them, from LG’s 88-inch OLED to Samsung’s 85-inch QLED 8K. (LG also had 75-inch LCD sets using their NanoCell color filter technology.) Sony showed 85-inch and 98-inch 8K model in their booth to complement their line of 4K OLED TVs. Sharp, which is planning to re-enter the television business in the near future, will offer 60-inch, 70-inch, and 80-inch 8K TVs. TCL, Hisense, Konka, Skyworth, and Changhong also unveiled 8K TV prototypes.

I counted over a dozen different models, including more than a few showing next-generation backlight technology based on “mini” LED arrays. (A few of the demos referred to “micro” LED backlight arrays, but that’s unlikely at this date due to manufacturing challenges.) The advantage of “mini” backlights is more and smaller areas of local dimming, improving contrast and high dynamic range response.

Sharp’s planned re-entry into the television business is intriguing, considering the company’s near-bankruptcy a few years ago and the subsequent purchase of 66% of the company by Hon Hai Precision Industries (Foxconn). Instead of borrowing more money from Japanese banks to stay afloat, Sharp now has Terry Ghou’s huge bankroll to plan its product line and marketing, not to mention a complete line-up of 8K televisions, the BC-60A 8K broadcast camera, an 8K non-linear editing system, and an 8K asset storage and retrieval system (cloud based, of course).

Sharp wants back in to the premium TV business and showed wide range of 8K products, including content streaming.

 

Stream TV networks showed an 8K desktop monitor and his 65-inch autostereo 8K TV. 3D isn’t quite dead yet!

“This will DEFINITELY be the year for 60 GHz wireless!” I’ve lost track of how many 60 GHz wireless video demos I’ve seen over the past decade from companies like Silicon Image and its successor Lattice Semiconductor, DVDO, Qualcomm, and Intel (not to mention the WiFi Alliance). Products come and go (remember the 15 different tri-band WiFi modems from 2016?), but the technology seems to be stuck in a rut.

Maybe 2019 will be different. Keyssa demonstrated near-field connectivity of everything from tablets to TVs and snap-on LED tiles using its KISS technology. The chips are about as big as a deer tick, but the principle is that of coupled energy over a maximum 10mm air gap to transport data in a half-duplex mode at up to 6 Gb/s per lane. To prove the weight-lifting capabilities of this tin titan, Keyssa also built a wireless backplane dock that uses 32 KISS channels to stream 8K video at 96 gigabits per second. (Yes, it IS that fast!)

Several floors up in The Westgate Hotel, Canadian fabless semiconductor company Peraso also has a few millimeter-wave tricks up its sleeve. In addition to 4K wireless USB links, Peraso also showed 60 GHz 802.11ad WiFi access points for high-speed in-room video streaming and super-fast data downloads. At this frequency, radio waves can’t penetrate solid objects, nor is it at all easy to intercept them. That combination provides very robust security, and I’m still puzzled why more manufacturers haven’t adopted the technology.

Did you know you can couple 60 GHz wireless 4K video signals over flexible plastic rods? Keyssa does.

 

This ready-to-buy 60 GHz wireless access point uses chipsets from Peraso.

On the show floor (near its ‘connected beer’ exhibit, I kid you not), Qualcomm had an intriguing demo of super-fast gaming using 60 GHz links from smartphones. There are six channels available in this band, each of which is a little over 2 GHz in size. With light compression, there is near zero latency for gamers. And with steerable antenna arrays, multiple players can work with different screens on the same channels and never interfere with each other.

“Interfaces will get faster. Believe me!” With 8K and HDR looming (not to mention high frame rate video), our display interfaces need to get a heckuva lot faster in a real hurry. Over in the HDMI pavilion, there was a demonstration of Samsung’s Q900R 85-inch 8K TV showing custom 8K video content through an HDMI 2.1 interface built by chip maker Invecas. Given that only Socionext is currently shipping v2.1 TX/RX sets, I had to grill the Invecas rep to verify that “no, you won’t find HDMI 2.1 on the Samsung set currently.” (It’s currently equipped with one HDMI 2.0 interface).

During its press conference on Tuesday, LG claimed that their 2019 8K TVs will “support HDMI 2.1.” Presumably, this means there is some sort of upgrade path for models released earlier in the year, inasmuch as there is still a lot of testing and compliance certification to be done before manufacturers can start rolling out version 2.1. Samsung, for their part, has an upgrade option on the 85-inch model.

Over in the DisplayPort booth, it was announced that DP 2.0 will begin rolling out later in the year. V2.0 raises the per-lane data rate from 8.1 Gb/s to an astounding 24 Gb/s for a total data rate across all four lanes of 96 Gb/s. (Subtract 20% for overhead bits to get the real rate). This is clearly optical fiber territory – I’m not aware of anyone transporting data at this speed over copper links. And while that may seem like a lot of horsepower, keep in mind that an 8K/60 signal with 10-bit RGB color will require about 85 Gb/s to travel.

Invecas demonstrated an 8K home theater, using HDMI 2.1 connections. It will be a while before you see v2.1 on any TVs, though.

 

DisplayPort 2.0 is coming! In the meantime, v1.4 can drive three monitors simultaneously – and with different 4K video on each.

“Taking displays to another level!” Skyworth showed a 65-inch 4K TV using a dual-panel LCD structure. One panel delivers the full-color HDR images while the second panel acts simply as a monochromatic light modulator. In effect, it’s another shutter, allowing the display to achieve OLED-like black levels and very high peak (specular) whites while maintaining a wide contrast ratio. Not a new trick – Panasonic showed a similar approach for a 31.5” HDR 4K monitor a couple of years ago – but this is the first time I’ve seen it in a consumer TV.

In the LG Display booth, among the curved and transparent OLEDs, I found LG’s In-Touch system. Unlike conventional touchscreen film overlays on displays, In-Touch places the touch sensors directly below the LCD glass surface. This results not only in a more sensitive touchscreen, but it’s also a lot more accurate as the gap between the surface and sensors is greatly reduced.

And it appears that the fascination with curved displays has gone the way of 3D. I spotted only one curved 65-inch Ultra HDTV, and that was in the TCL booth. Samsung won an award for its LG was more focused on its premium roll-up/down 4K OLED TVs, a concept first shown last year at CES by LG Display. These roll-up sets don’t have a price yet, but will be part of LG’s Signature OLED line.

Samsung’s 75-inch micro LED TV prototype might have been the only true “micro” shown at CES.

 

Lumens’ .57″ green micro LED display has Full HD resolution for near-to-eye displays. And it’s bright!

Samsung did show a 75-inch class micro LED TV prototype at their Sunday preview event, an interesting demo for a company that apparently wants to get out of the LCD manufacturing business and concentrate on purely emissive LED TVs and displays, going forward. Of all the demonstrations of micro LED, I have no doubt that Samsung’s prototype is the real thing. Keep in mind that we’re taking about tiny LED chips that measure less than 50 micrometers (µm), while “mini” LEDs are in the range of 100 µm to 200 µm.

Lumens demonstrated something a bit simpler but no less important: A .57” green (monochromatic) micro LED display, suitable for head-mounted displays. This device has Full HD (1920×1080) resolution and is capable of brightness levels in excess of 300 nits. Over in the Sands, Kopin showed its 2K OLED near-to-eye display, which is about the size of a quarter. And Vusix demonstrated its Blade AR glasses, which project a small color video image onto the lens surface that isn’t quite as detailed and contrasty a I expected.

I’ll close out this report with a mention of the next-generation video codec for compressing 4K and 8K video. Fraunhofer had a small exhibit that was easy to miss, detailing the Versatile Video Codec (VVC). VVC builds on the coding tree block and unit structure of HEVC H.265 and makes analysis and compression decisions on a more granular level. This codec requires a considerable increase in computing power, but the target of the Joint Video Experts Team (JVET) is to achieve a 50%  bitrate reduction for comparable image quality over H.265. Look for the final standard in 2020.

The Versatile Video Codec can stream 4K content at 2.2 Mb/s that looks as good as H.265 at 5 Mb/s.

 

Audi’s been using red OLEDs in their tailights for some time now. (You didn’t know?)

 

Roll-up TVs are here, thanks to LG. Now you see them, now you don’t!

 

 

 

 

 

Heads Up! Here Comes 8K TV (or, The Case Of The Amazing Vanishing Pixels)

Yes, you read that right: 8K displays are coming. For that matter, 8K broadcasting has already been underway in Japan since 2012, and several companies are developing 8K video cameras to be shown at next month’s NAB show in Las Vegas.

“Hold on a minute!” you’re probably thinking. “I don’t even own a 4K TV yet. And now they’re already on the endangered species list?”

Well, not exactly. But two recent press releases show just how crazy the world of display technology has become.

The first release came from Insight Media in February and stated that, “The 2020 Tokyo Olympics will be a major driver in the development of 8K infrastructure with Japanese broadcaster NHK leading efforts to produce and broadcast Olympic programming to homes…cameras from Hitachi, Astrodesign, Ikegami, Sharp and Sony address the many challenges in capturing 8K video…the display industry plans for massive expansion of Gen 10.5 capacity, which will enable efficient production of 65″ and 75″ display panels for both LCD and OLED TV…. sales of 8K Flat Panel TVs are expected to increase from 0.1 million in 2018 to 5.8 million in 2022, with China leading the way representing more than 60% of the total market during this period.”

Read it again. Almost 6 million 8K LCD and OLED TVs are expected to be sold four years from now, and over 3 million of those sales will be in China.

But there’s more. Analyst firm IHS Markit issued their own forecasts for 8K TV earlier this month, predicting that, While ultra-high definition (UHD) panels are estimated to account for more than 98 percent of the 60-inch and larger display market in 2017, most TV panel suppliers are planning to mass produce 8K displays in 2018. The 7680 x 4320-pixel resolution display is expected to make up about 1 percent of the 60-inch and larger display market this year and 9 percent in 2020.”

According to HIS Markit, companies with skin in the 8K game include Innolux, which will supply 65-inch LCD panels to Sharp for use in consumer televisions and in commercial AV displays. Meanwhile, Sharp – which had previously shown an 85-inch 8K TV prototype – will ramp up production of a new 70-inch 8K LCD display (LV-70X500E) in their Sakai Gen 10 LCD plant. This display was shown in Sharp’s booth at ISE, along with their new 8K video camera.

Sharp showed this 8K camera (BC-B60A) at ISE…

 

…feeding this 70-inch 8K LCD monitor (LV-70X500E), a new glass cut from the Sakai Gen 10 fab.

Sony and Samsung are also expected to launch 8K LCD TVs this year. Both companies showed prototypes at CES with Samsung’s offering measuring about 85 inches. Sony’s prototype also measured 85 inches but included micro light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the backlight to achieve what Sony described as “full high dynamic range,” achieving peak (specular) brightness of 10,000 nits. (That’ll give you a pretty good sunburn!)

Oher players in 8K include LG Display, who already announced an 88-inch 8K OLED TV prior to CES, and Chinese fabricators BOE, AUO, and China Electronics Corporation (CEC). What’s even more interesting is that some of these 8K LCD and OLED panels will be equipped with indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) switching transistors.

No, IGZO isn’t a cure for aging. But what it does is provide much higher pixel density in a given screen size with lower power consumption. More importantly, it will allow these 8K TVs to refresh their pictures as fast as 120 Hz – double the normal refresh rate we use today. And that will be important as High Frame Rate (HFR) video production ramps up.

LG Display’s 88-inch 8K OLED display was a real eye-catcher at CES 2018.

Predictably, prices for TVs and monitors using panels with 4K resolution are collapsing. In the AV channel, 4K (Ultra HD) displays are only beginning to show up in product lines, but manufacturers are well aware of pricing trends with Ultra HD vs. Full HD (1920x1080p). With some consumer models now selling for as little as $8 per diagonal inch, the move from Full HD to 4K / Ultra HD will pick up lots of steam.

And with 8K displays now becoming a ‘premium’ product, 4K / Ultra HD will be the ‘everyday’ or mainstream display offering in screen sizes as small as 40 inches and as large as – well, you name it. We’ve already seen 84-inch, 88-inch, and 98-inch commercial displays, and prototypes as large as 120 inches – yes, 10’ of diagonal screen, wrap your head around that – have been exhibited at CES and other shows.

We saw quite a few demonstrations of 4K commercial displays at ISE and expect to see a whole lot more at InfoComm in June, along with the inevitable price wars. And there will be the usual “my encoder handles 4K better than yours with less latency” battles, shoot-outs, and arguments. But that could ultimately turn out to be the appetizer in this full-course meal.

For companies manufacturing signal distribution and switching equipment, 4K / Ultra HD already presents us with a full plate. 8K would be too much to bite off at present! Consider that an 8K/60 video signal using 12-bit RGB color requires a data rate approaching 100 gigabits per second (Gb/s), as compared to a 12-bit, 60 Hz Full HD signal’s rate of about 6 Gb/s, and you can see we will have some pretty steep hills to climb to manage 8K.

Distributing 8K over a network will be equally challenging and will require switching speeds somewhere north of 40 Gb/s even for a basic form of 8K video, which (we assume) will also incorporate high dynamic range and wide color gamuts. 40 Gb/s switches do exist but are pricey and would require 8K signals to be compressed by at least 25% to be manageable. And they’d certainly use optical fiber for all their connections.

To be sure, 4K / Ultra HD isn’t on the endangered species just yet. (For that matter, you can still buy Full HD monitors and TVs, if that’s any comfort.) But whether it makes sense or not – or whether we’re ready or not – it’s “full speed ahead” for 8K displays as we head into the third decade of the 21st century…

Hey, Whatever Happened To superMHL?

There is no such thing as a ‘sure thing.’ You can have a 20-yard field goal try with 5 seconds left, two foul shots left to ice the game, or a one-on-one penalty shot with your best wing on the ice. Doesn’t matter – things do go awry. In fact, sometimes they never get going in the first place.

Two years ago this coming January, Silicon Image (now Lattice Semiconductor) unveiled what they claimed to be the best next-generation display interface. They called it superMHL, and it was super indeed; sporting a large, 32-pin symmetrical plug design to go with a 36 gigabits-per-second (Gb/s) data transfer rate.

That’s wasn’t all. superMHL (basically MHL on steroids) also supported the new Display Stream Compression (DSC) 1.1 standard. And it would also work with the all-important USB 3.0 Type-C plug’s Alternate Mode, which multiplexed display connections and fast USB serial data in the same ‘smart’ plug.

Wow! I didn’t see this coming; neither did most of the trade press in attendance. Here was a connector faster than DisplayPort’s version 1.3 (32 Gb/s), plus it was symmetrical in operation (plug it in either way, it doesn’t care, it’s smart enough to set itself up the right way). And it was compatible with the next generation of USB connectors.

Even more amazing, the MHL Consortium demo showed 8K content flowing to a large Samsung 8K TV through this interface, which claimed to support 7680×4320 video @ 60 Hz with 4:2:0 color (albeit using DSC to pack things down a bit in size). If there was ever a ‘sure thing,’ this was it!

It's the fastest display interface out there - and no one uses it. Maybe they should call it HDMI 3.0?

It’s the fastest display interface out there – and no one uses it. Maybe they should call it HDMI 3.0?

I was assured in the following months that Lattice and the MHL Consortium would have several press announcements pertaining to design wins for the 2015 holiday season. I’d see several new UHDTV televisions with at least one superMHL port and the rest of the inputs would be HDMI 2.0 connections. Thus, we’d be ready for the brave new world of 8K TV! (Never mind that 4K TV was still getting on its feet at the time!)

But it never happened. Black Friday, Christmas, New Year’s, and then ICES and the 2016 Super Bowl came and went with no announcements. At ICES 2016, the MHL Consortium once again had a demo of 8K content playback through an LG 98-inch LCD TV using the superMHL interface, and “yes, it looked great” and “we’re ready for 8K TV” and “it works with USB Type-C” and so on, and so forth.

Right now, it’s pretty much radio silence about superMHL. So what happened?

For one thing, the adoption rate of HDMI 2.0 since its formal unveiling in 2013 can be charitably described as “slow.” Early Ultra HDTVs had perhaps one HDMI 2.0 port on them, and not all of them supported the new HDCP 2.2 copy protection protocol. In our industry, we’re only now starting to see distribution amplifiers and switches with HDMI 2.0 connections – there’s still a lot of version 1.4 product out there, too.

Another perplexing question: Since superMHL fixes the speed limit problems of HDMI 2.0 by doubling them – and also adds the all-important compatibility with USB Type-C (a must, going forward) along with support for DSC (critical as we push display resolutions beyond 5K), why would Lattice continue to support both formats, or even suggest they could be mixed on future UHD+ televisions and monitors?

In other words; if there is a better option, then why wouldn’t you want that option?

To be sure; Lattice is in a tricky position. Through their subsidiary HDMI Licensing LLC, they reap millions of dollars each year in royalties associated with every HDMI port on every piece of consumer and commercial gear. That’s a nice cash flow, and who wants to mess with it?

But they really can’t lose here, inasmuch as they control the IP for all of these transition-minimized differential signaling (TMDS) interfaces. Why not bite the bullet and announce the phase-out of HDMI 1.3/1.4, and move everyone to version 2.0? Better yet; just announce a sunset for version 2.0 and start the transition to superMHL, a/k/a HDMI 3.0?

Yeah, it's fun to demo 8K TV using superMHL, but that takes the focus off the real-world, practical interfacing solutions we're facing now.

Yeah, it’s fun to demo 8K TV using superMHL, but that takes the focus off the real-world, practical interfacing solutions we’re facing now.

One problem Lattice created with this new connector is that it’s effectively an oxymoron. MHL stands for Mobile High-definition Link, and it was originally designed to multiplex HDMI signals through 5-pin micro USB ports. The concept was that the single micro USB connector on your smartphone or tablet could connect to a television so you could play back videos, show photos, and share your screen. (Never mind that the majority of people prefer to do this via a wireless connection and not a 15-foot HDMI-to-micro USB cable that often requires a power adapter.)

So MHL meant “small, fast, and powerful.” And now we have the ‘funny car’ of display interfaces with a large connector that will never get anywhere near your mobile device…and the way things are going, it may never get anywhere near your TV, either.

In previous columns and in my classes and talks, I’ve written about the deficiencies of HDMI 2.0 – slow speed, non-symmetrical, no support for USB Type-C (finally remedied a few months ago) and lack of support for Display Stream Compression. superMHL fixes all of these problems in one fell swoop.

The answer? Re-brand this connector as HDMI 3.0 – which it really is – and make the appropriate announcement in two months at ICES 2017. Practically speaking; MHL has been a non-starter (among major U.S. brands, only Sony, Samsung, and LG have supported it on their smartphones and TVs) and the adoption rate for HDMI 2.0 is nowhere near as fast as it was for version 1.3. Too many interfaces and too much confusion!

After all, even Elvis Presley had to make a comeback…

CES 2016 In The Rear View Mirror

I’m a little less than a week back from one of the world’s largest trade shows, the 2016 International CES. According to press releases from the Consumer Technology Association (CTA), the new name for the Consumer Electronics Association, upwards of 170,000 people attended the show this year, which was spread out over several venues in Las Vegas.

Based on the crowds I saw, I’d say that number wasn’t far off. Walking through booths in the Las Vegas Convention Center gave me the feeling of strolling along the beach, unaware that a tidal wave was sneaking up on you – one minute you had a particular exhibit all to yourself, and the next, you were swamped by a sea of bodies adorned with CES badges.

Trying to predict which trends in electronics will be “hot” each year is basically a fool’s errand. Going into the show, I was deluged with press releases about “Internet of Things” gadgets, and the show didn’t disappoint – I saw everything from connected thermostats and body sensors to pet food dispensers and shower heads that monitor how much water each member of your family uses – and record that data, too.

The LG floor-to-ceiling OLED wall at CES put many people into a trance.

The LG floor-to-ceiling OLED wall at CES put many people into a trance.

 

TCL set up their usual tiny booth in the Central Hall.

TCL set up their usual tiny booth in the Central Hall.

Last year, the show was all about Ultra HDTV, with some unusual video aspect ratios and pixel counts thrown in. This year, I figured high dynamic range (HDR) would be the “hot” item in every booth. Surprisingly, it wasn’t generating all that much buzz, even though it was featured in the Sony, Samsung, LG, and Chinese TV booths. Instead, there seemed to me much more interest in virtual reality (VR); examples of which were to be found everywhere in the LVCC and also over at the Sands Expo Center.

What was an eye-opener (although not entirely unexpected) was the reduction in booth space devoted to televisions in the Samsung, Panasonic, and LG booths. Sony chose to use Ultra HDTVs to illustrate HDR, wide color gamut, and local area dimming concepts, while Panasonic largely ignored TVs altogether, featuring just a 65-inch UHD OLED TV in one part of their booth and a 55-inch 8K LCD set in another; primarily to demonstrate 8K signal transport over optical fiber.

LG and Samsung devoted more real estate than ever before to connected and “smart” appliances, tablets, smartphones, and personal electronics like smart watches, subtly pushing TVs (of which there were still plenty, believe me) to a secondary role with less square footage. The fact is; appliances are more profitable than TVs these days…WAY more profitable. And Samsung and LG had plenty of refrigerators, ovens, washers, and even dryers out for inspection.

For LG, CES was a big “coming out” party for their expanding line of OLED Ultra HDTVs – they were everywhere, dazzling with their deep blacks and saturated colors. But LCD still plays a part in the LG ecosystem: The 98-inch 8K LCD panel that blew us away last year made a return appearance, as did the 105-inch 21:9 5K (5120×2160) model.

This Innolux 8K LCD monster TV showed up in the Hisense booth and a few other locations.

This Innolux 8K LCD monster TV showed up in the Hisense booth and a few other locations.

 

Samsung showed the

Samsung showed the “World’s largest 170-inch TV.” Apparently there are smaller ones I didn’t know about.

Over in the Samsung booth, they kept the “mine’s bigger than yours” contest going with a 170-inch Ultra HDTV based on a LCD panel fabbed at CSOT in China and equipped with quantum dots. (Last year, Samsung insisted their quantum dot illumination technology was to be called “nanocrystals.” This year, they did a 180-degree turn, and are now calling them quantum dots.) A curved 8K TV and some demos of live broadcast Ultra HD with HDR were also showcased alongside the company’s new Ultra HD Blu-ray player ($399 when it ships in the spring).

The “towers” and stacks of LG and Samsung televisions we used to marvel at a decade ago have now found their way into the ever-expanding booths of Chinese TV brands like Hisense, TCL, Changhong, Haier, Konka, and Skyworth. (Not familiar names? Don’t worry, you’ll get to know them soon enough.) And notable by its absence was Sharp Electronics, whose US TV business and assembly plant in Mexico were acquired by Hisense last year. That’s quite a change from ten years ago, when the company held a 21% worldwide market share in LCD TV shipments.

To be sure, there was a Sharp meeting room w-a-y in the back of the Hisense booth, which was enormous – almost as big as TCL’s behemoth in the middle of the Central Hall. And the Konka, Changhong, and Skyworth booths weren’t far behind in size. If you needed to see the writing on the wall regarding the future of television manufacturing, it couldn’t have been more clear – everything is slowly and inexorably moving to China. (It’s a good bet that the LCD panel in your current TV came out of a Chinese or Taiwanese assembly plant!)

TVs were just part of the story in Las Vegas. I had been waiting a few years to see which companies would finally pick up the baton and start manufacturing 802.11ad Wi-Fi chipsets. For those readers who haven’t heard of it before, 802.11ad – or its more common names, “Wireless Gigabit” and “Certified Wireless Gigabit” is a standard that uses the 60 GHz millimeter-wave band to transmit high-speed data over 2 GHz-wide channels.

Letv demonstrated wireless 4K video streaming over 60 GHz 802.11ad, using this new smartphone and Qualcomm's chipset.

Letv demonstrated wireless 4K video streaming over 60 GHz 802.11ad, using this new smartphone and Qualcomm’s chipset.

 

Are you on the USB Type-C bandwagon yet? (Check your new laptop or smartphone...)

Are you on the USB Type-C bandwagon yet? (Check your new laptop or smartphone…)

Considering that the current channels in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz band are only 20 MHz wide, and that the 802.11ac channel bonding protocol can only combine enough of them to create a 160 MHz channel, that’s quite a leap in bandwidth! The catch? 60 GHz signals are reflected by just about solid object, limiting their use to inside rooms. But with high-power operation and steerable antennas, those signals can travel a pretty good distance.

In-room, high-bandwidth operation is perfect for streaming video – even at 4K resolution – from phones, tablets, set-top boxes, and even Blu-ray players to TVs, projectors, AV receivers, and switching and distribution gear. Qualcomm had demos of numerous ready-to-manufacture tri-band modems (2.4/5/60 GHz), along with LETV’s latest smart phone with a built-in 60 GHz radio chip. And SiBEAM, a part of Lattice Semiconductor, showed 4K streaming through their WiHD technology, along with close-proximity interface coupling using SNAP to download images and video from a waterproofed GoPro camera.

Lattice had some other tricks up their sleeve in their meeting room. One of those was using a Windows 10 phone with a MHL (Mobile High-definition Link) connection through USB Type-C to create a virtual desktop PC. All that needed to be added was a mouse, a keyboard, and monitor. In another area, they showed a scheme to compress Ultra HD signals before transmitting them over an HDBaseT link, with decompression at the far end. This, presumably to overcome the 18 Gb/s speed limit of HDMI 2.0.

DisplayPort had a good demonstration of Display Stream Compression (DSC). That's the chipset under that enormous fan.

DisplayPort had a good demonstration of Display Stream Compression (DSC). That’s the chipset under that enormous fan.

 

Ultra HD Blu-ray is here, complete with high dynamic range mastering. How will it hold up against the growing trend to stream video?

Ultra HD Blu-ray is here, complete with high dynamic range mastering. How will it hold up against the growing trend to stream video?

Not far away, the “funny car” guys at the MHL Consortium showed their superMHL interface linking video to another LG 98-inch 8K LCD display. Converting what was once a tiny, 5-pin interface designed for 1080p/60 streaming off phones and tablets to a 32-pin, full-size symmetrical connector that can hit speeds of 36 Gb/s seems like putting Caterpillar truck tires and a big-block Chevy engine in a Smart Car to me…but they did it anyway, and added support for USB Type-C Alternate mode. Now, they’re ready for 8K, or so they keep telling me. (That’s fine, but the immediate need is for faster interfaces to accommodate Ultra HD with 10-bit and 12-bit RGB color at high frame rates. Let’s hear about some design wins!)

At the nearby VESA/DisplayPort booth, there were numerous demonstrations of video streaming over USB Type-C connections in Alternate mode, with one lash-up supporting two 1920x1080p monitors AND a 2550×1536 monitor, all at the same time. DP got somewhat faster with version 1.3 (32 Gb/s) and now a new version (1.4) will be announced by the end of January. The VESA guys also had a nice exhibit of Display Stream Compression (DSC), which can pack down a display signal by a 2:1 or 3:1 ratio with essentially no loss or latency (a few microseconds). If we’re going to keep pushing clock speeds higher and higher, compression is inevitable.

The world of display interfacing appears to becoming more disjointed, what with the majority of consumer devices still supporting HDMI 1.4 and 2.0, while an increasing number of computer and video card manufacturers are jumping on the DisplayPort bandwagon (Apple, HP, and Lenovo, among others). How superMHL will fit into this is anyone’s guess: The format is TMDS-based, like HDMI, but outstrips it in every way (HDMI 2.0 does not support DSC or USB Type-C operation). Do we really need two TMDS-based interfaces, going forward?

Speaking of USB Type-C, everybody and their brother/sister at CES had Type-C hubs, adapters, and even extenders out for inspection. If any connector is going to force the competing display interface standards to get in line, it will be this one. Apple, Intel, Lenovo, and several phone/tablet manufacturers are already casting their lots with Type-C, and it looks to be the next “sure thing” as we head toward a universal data/video/audio/power interface. I even came home with a credit card-sized press kit with a reversible USB 2.0 / 3.0 Type-C plug built-in!

First it was vinyl. Then cassettes. Now, Kodak is bringing back Super 8mm film and cameras. (I kid you not!)

First it was vinyl. Then cassettes. Now, Kodak is bringing back Super 8mm film and cameras. (I kid you not!)

 

Lenovo is one of four laptop manufacturers now offering OLED screens, here on a ThinkPad X1 Yoga (right).

Lenovo is one of four laptop manufacturers now offering OLED screens, here on a ThinkPad X1 Yoga (right).

So – how about HDR? Yes, a few companies showed it, and there were spirited discussions over dinner whether OLEDs could actually show signals with high dynamic range (they most assuredly can, as they can reproduce 15 stops of light from just above black to full white without clipping) and whether you actually need thousands of cd/m2 to qualify as an HDR display (I’m not in that camp; displays that bright can be painful to look at).

For LCDs, quantum dots (QDs) will lead the way to HDR. Both QD Vision and 3M had demos of quantum dot illuminants, with QD Vision focusing on light pipes for now and 3M partnering with Nanosys to manufacture a quantum dot enhancement film. Both work very well and provide a much larger color gamut than our current ITU Rec.709 color space, which looks positively washed-out compared to the more expansive Rec.2020 color gamut associated with UHD and HDR. QD Vision also showed the reduction in power consumption over OLEDs when using QDs. However, you won’t get the deep blacks and wide viewing angles out of an LCD in any case, so a few more watts may not matter to the videophiles.

The Ultra HD Blu-ray format had its formal debut at CES with Panasonic and Samsung both showing players. The latter can be pre-ordered for $399 and will ship in the spring. (Remember when Samsung’s first-ever Blu-ray player sold for nearly $2,000 almost a decade ago?) To support HDR – which requires 10-bit encoding – the HDMI interface must be type 2.0a to correctly read the metadata. That can be in the DolbyVision format, or the Technicolor format, but the baseline definition is HDR-10.

LG Display's flexible 18-inch OLED display was just too cool for words.

LG Display’s flexible 18-inch OLED display was just too cool for words.

 

Stand four 65-inch UHD OLED panels on end, stitch them together, and this is what you get. Bibbedy-bobbedy-boo!

Stand four 65-inch UHD OLED panels on end, stitch them together, and this is what you get. Bibbedy-bobbedy-boo!

I saved the best for last. Every year, LG Display invites a few journalists up to what we call the “candy store” to see the latest in display technology. And this year didn’t disappoint: How about dual-side 55-inch flexible OLED TVs just millimeters thick? Or a 25-inch waterfall (curved) display that could form the entire center console in a car, with flexible OLEDs in the dashboard creating bright, colorful, and contrasty gauges?

LGD has WAY too much fun coming up with demos for this suite. I saw four 65-inch OLED panels stacked on end, edge to edge, and bent into an S-curve to create a 2.2:1 ratio widescreen UHD+ display. And it also had video playing on both sides. In another location, I saw a jaw-dropping 31.5” 8K LCD monitor with almost perfect uniformity, and an 82-inch “pillar” LCD display.

How about a 55-inch UHD OLED display rolled into a half-pipe, with you standing at the center, playing a video game? Talk about filling your field of view! Next to it was a convex 55-inch display, wrapped around a ceiling support pole. And next to that, a 55-inch transparent OLED display with graphics and text floating over real jewelry, arranged on tiers. The actual transparency index is about 40% and the concept worked great.

Toyota's Future Concept Vehicle (FCV) is a bit roomier than last year's sidecar-shaped model.

Toyota’s Future Concept Vehicle (FCV) is a bit roomier than last year’s sidecar-shaped model.

 

Wow, drones are getting REALLY big these days!

Wow, drones are getting REALLY big these days!

The icing on the cake was an 18-inch flexible OLED with 800×1200 resolution that could be rolled up into a tube or a cone-like shape while showing HD video. This was one of those “I gotta get me one of these!” moments, but significantly, it shows how OLED technology has matured to the point where it can be manufactured on flexible substrates. And what is the largest market in the world or displays? Transportation, where G-forces and vibration eventually crack rigid substrates, like LCD glass.

That’s just a snapshot of what I saw, and I haven’t even mentioned drones (buzzing all over the place), fold-up scooters and hoverboards, smart appliances, pet cams, alarms that alert you when an alarm goes off (really!), wooden smartphones (really!), talking spoons and forks (really!), toothbrushes linked to video games (would I kid you?), and 4K action cams with built-in solar cell chargers.

Gotta run now. My phone just sent me a Wi-Fi alarm that a Bluetooth-connected doorbell camera spotted the UPS guy delivering a package I was already alerted about via email to my desktop that signaled a buzzer via ZigBee in my virtual desktop PC that was connected wirelessly to my smartphone, currently streaming 4K video over a 60 GHz link to my “smart” TV that is also…also…also…

Oh, great. Now I’ve forgotten what I was talking about…Does anyone make an iRemember app? (Look for my “second thoughts” column later this month…)

Look Out, HDMI – Here Comes Super MHL!

Yesterday, the MHL Consortium announced its newest flavor of display interface – Super MHL (or, more accurately, superMHL). MHL, which stands for Mobile High-definition Link, was original developed to enable display connections over Micro USB ports on phones and tablets. You’ll find it most often on mobile devices and televisions from Samsung and Sony. It will also pop up on LG products and there’s even an MHL port on the Pioneer AV receiver I bought a couple of months ago.

There have been some clever demos of MHL applications at past CES events. One was to build a “dumb” laptop (no CPU or video card) – just keyboard, touchpad, and display – and use MHL to dock a smartphone into it make everything work. Another demo in the Silicon Image booth featured smartphones being used as video game controllers with the video playing back on the controller screen.

Yet another demo showed a Sony Experia phone being used as a remote control with a Samsung TV to select inputs, play video, and launch Internet applications. It’s easy to do this stuff when you can multiplex video and serial data through the same connector, which in MHL version 3.0 can even play back Ultra HD video at 30 fps with 8-bit color.

Note the emphasis on the “mobile” part. In the world of transition-minimized differential signaling (TMDS), MHL is one of a few players, the others being HDMI (the dominant digital display interface), its predecessor DVI (still going strong although the standard isn’t updated anymore), and Micro and Mini HDMI, niche connectors on smartphones and cameras.

The advent of Ultra HD, 4K, and higher display resolutions like the new “5K” widescreen workstation monitors use has created a problem: Our display interfaces need to get faster. A LOT faster!

But HDMI 2.0, announced in September 2013, isn’t fast enough. I get into frequent debates with people about why it isn’t, so let me clarify my position: HDMI 2.0 has a maximum overall clock (data) rate of 18 gigabits per second (18 Gb/s). 80% of that can be used to carry display signals; the rest is overhead using 8 bit/10 bit mapping.

So that limits HDMI 2.0 to supporting 3840×2160 pixels (4400×2250 pixels with blanking) in an RGB signal format @ 60 Hz refresh. That’s the hard, fast speed limit. For anyone using a computer workstation or media player with RGB output, this hard, fast limit is a serious obstacle: How will people who buy the new HP/Dell 27-inch workstation monitors connect them? Their working resolution is 5120×2880 pixels, and at 60 Hz, that’s just too fast for HDMI 2.0.

It looked like DisplayPort 1.2 would finally ascend to the top of the podium, since its existing speed of 21.6 Gb/s (17.28 Gb/s usable) was already faster than HDMI 2.0. And now, DisplayPort 1.3 has been announced, with a top speed of 32 Gb/s (about 26 Gb/s usable) and the adoption of Display Stream compression. Indeed, more computer manufacturers are providing DP connections on laptops: Lenovo seems to have moved completely to this format, and Apple has been supporting DP for some time now.

8K is here! (Okay, maybe that's a few years away...)

8K is here! (Okay, maybe that’s a few years away…)

With all of that in mind, I will admit I was completely blind-sided by superMHL at this year’s International CES. Instead of a 5-pin Micro USB connector, superMHL offers a 32-pin, full-size connector that’s symmetrical (the next big thing in connectivity, a la USB Type-C). It also supports Display Stream compression. And it’s compatible with USB Type-C, although not with all six lanes. And it has a maximum data rate of 36 Gb/s across six lanes of data. (According to the MHL Consortium, that’s fast enough to transport an 8K (7680×4320) image with 120 Hz refresh and 4:2:0 color.)

The MHL Consortium’s announcement yesterday featured Silicon Image’s new Sil97798 port processor, which can also handle HDMI 2.0 signals. Here are the key specs from the Super MHL press release:

  • 8K 60fps video resolution, as outlined in the superMHL specification
  • New, reversible 32-pin superMHL connector
  • USB Type-C with MHL Alt Mode
  • High Dynamic Range (HDR), Deep Color, BT.2020
  • Object audio – Dolby Atmos®, DTS:X, 3D audio, audio-only mode
  • High bit-rate audio extraction
  • HDCP 2.2 premium content protection

 

Here's the 32-pin superMHL reversible connector.

Here’s the 32-pin superMHL reversible connector.

Whew! That’s quite a jump up from MHL. Some might say that superMHL is on steroids, but no matter how you look at it, superMHL is now a serious contender for the next generation of display connectivity. In the press briefing, a representative of the MHL Consortium waxed on about the approach of 8K broadcasting (it’s already been operating for two years in Japan) and how we would see a migration to 8K TV and displays in the near future.

As Larry David says, “Curb your enthusiasm!” Supporting 8K would be nice, but we’ve barely started the transition to UHDTV. And right now, selling 8K TV to the average consumer is like trying to peddle a Ferrari to someone who lives on a dirt road.

Where superMHL will find its niche is in supporting the higher bit rates that high dynamic range (HDR), wide color gamuts (BT.2020), and higher frame rates (60/96/100/120 Hz) require. All will shortly become important parts of the next-generation (UHD) television system. DisplayPort is already there with version 1.3, and you’ll even find DP 1.2 connections on selected models of Ultra HDTVs so that gamers can connect laptops and desktops at Ultra HD resolutions with 60 Hz refresh.

Now, the elephant in the room: How does the emergence of superMHL affect HDMI? Even though version 2.0 is over a year and a half old, you don’t see many HDMI 2.0 jacks on Ultra HDTVs. Casual inspections at Best Buy, HH Gregg, and other outlets show that the typical HDMI 2.0 port count is usually one (1), even as we approach April of 2015.

In the superMHL presentation, the concept of a TV with multiple HDMI 2.0 inputs and one superMHL input was outlined. This would, in effect, be the next step up from where we are now, with the typical Ultra HDTV having one HDMI 2.0 input and three HDMI 1.4 inputs.

But if Silicon Image’s new Sil9779 port processor can handle both formats, why bother with HDMI 2.0 in the first place, especially with its speed limitations? Wouldn’t it make more sense to future-proof all inputs and go with superMHL across the board? (Of course, the cost of adopting superMHL could weigh heavy on that decision.)

In the commercial AV and broadcast worlds, it would definitely make sense to jump to superMHL in the interests of future-proofing installations. Given the limited rollout of HDMI 2.0 to date, maybe supporting both HDMI 1.4 for legacy devices and superMHL is a smarter approach. (Note that superMHL and HDMI 2.0 both support HDCP 2.2, which is the next level in encryption and NOT compatible with older versions of HDMI.)

Summing up; the race for faster interface speed just got a lot more interesting with the addition of superMHL to the lineup. I can imagine that manufacturers of AV matrix switchers and distribution amplifiers are feeling another migraine headache coming on…

EDITOR’S NOTE: Last week, it was announced that Silicon Image has been acquired by Lattice Semiconductor of Hillsboro, Oregon, “ a leading provider of programmable connectivity solutions” according to the press release. The acquisition price was about $600M and now leaves Lattice in control of HDMI, MHL and superMHL, and SiBEAM (WiHD) patents and IP. More information can be found on the Lattice Web site at http://www.latticesemi.com/.